Zwitterions were used for the first time as promoters in ethylene methoxycarbonylation for the production of methyl propionate. They were found to improve the catalytic performance of the Pd–phosphine system. The presence of zwitterions could contribute to stabilize transition states and active catalytic Pd intermediates. The beneficial effect of the zwitterions was found to be most pronounced, when low amount of a strong acid (MeSO3H) was used with respect to palladium (below 2 equiv.). Under these conditions, phosphine ligand alkylation and reaction vessel corrosion are also anticipated to be less severe.
- Methyl propionate