X-ray free-electron laser based dark-field X-ray microscopy: A simulation-based study

Theodor Secanell Holstad*, Trygve Magnus Ræder, Mads Carlsen, Erik Bergbäck Knudsen, Leora Dresselhaus-Marais, Kristoffer Haldrup, Hugh Simons, Martin Meedom Nielsen, Henning Friis Poulsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Dark-field X-ray microscopy (DFXM) is a nondestructive full-field imaging technique providing three-dimensional mapping of microstructure and local strain fields in deeply embedded crystalline elements. This is achieved by placing an objective lens in the diffracted beam, giving a magnified projection image. So far, the method has been applied with a time resolution of milliseconds to hours. In this work, the feasibility of DFXM at the picosecond time scale using an X-ray free-electron laser source and a pump-probe scheme is considered. Thermomechanical strain-wave simulations are combined with geometrical optics and wavefront propagation optics to simulate DFXM images of phonon dynamics in a diamond single crystal. Using the specifications of the XCS instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source as an example results in simulated DFXM images clearly showing the propagation of a strain wave.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Applied Crystallography
Pages (from-to)112-121
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Dark-field X-ray microscopy
  • Dynamics
  • Phonons
  • Strain waves
  • X-ray free-electron lasers


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