Wire arc additive manufacturing of thin and thick walls made of duplex stainless steel

Antoine Queguineur*, Reza Asadi, Marta Ostolaza, Emilie Hørdum Valente, Venkata Karthik Nadimpalli, Gaurav Mohanty, Jean Yves Hascoët, Iñigo Flores Ituarte

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) direct energy deposition is used to process two different duplex stainless steels (DSS) wire chemistries. Macro- and micromechanical response variables relevant to industrialization are studied using a design of the experiment (DoE) approach. The tested operation window shows that the variation of layer height and over-thickness are highly correlated with travel speed and wire feed speed and positively correlated with heat input. The maximum achieved average instantaneous deposition rate is 3.54 kg/h. The use of wire G2205, which contains 5 wt% nickel content, results in a ferrite-to-austenite ratio that is equally balanced, while wire G2209, with 9 wt% nickel, provides a lower ferrite content. The spatial distribution of Fe% is influenced by part geometry and path planning, and higher heat inputs result in coarser microstructures. The manufacturing weaving strategy generates a heterogeneous microstructure characterized by fluctuations in Fe%. Thus, understanding the effect of complex thermal history, higher-dimensional design spaces, and uncertainty quantification is required to drive metal WAAM toward full industrialization.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Pages (from-to)381–400
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Additive manufacturing; Direct energy deposition; WAAM
  • Design of experiment
  • Duplex stainless steel
  • Ferrite content


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