Wind Farm Blockage Revealed by Fog: The 2018 Horns Rev Photo Case

Charlotte Bay Hasager*, Nicolai Gayle Nygaard, Gregory S. Poulos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Fog conditions at the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were photographed on 16 April 2018. In this study, we present the results of an analysis of the meteorological conditions on the day of the photographs. The aim of the study was to examine satellite images, meteorological observations, wind turbine data, lidar data, reanalysis data, and wake and blockage model results to assess whether wind farm blockage was a likely cause for the formation of fog upstream of the wind farm. The analysis indicated the advection of warm and moist air mass from the southwest over a cool ocean, causing cold sea fog. Wind speeds at hub height were slightly above cut-in, and there was a strong veer in the shallow stable boundary layer. The most important finding is that the wake and blockage model indicated stagnant air mass arcs to the south and west of the wind farm. In the photographs, sea fog is visible in approximately the same area. Therefore, it is likely that the reduced wind triggered the sea fog condensation due to blockage in this area. A discrepancy between the blockage model and sea fog in the photographs appears in the southwest direction. Slightly higher winds might have occurred locally in a southwesterly direction, which may have dissolved sea fog. The wake model predicted long and narrow wind turbine wakes similar to those observed in the photographs. The novelty of the study is new evidence of wind farm blockage. It fills the gap in knowledge about flow in wind farms. Implications for future research include advanced modeling of flow phenomena near large offshore wind farms relevant to wind farm operators.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8014
Issue number24
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Wind farm blockage
  • Wake model
  • Meteorological conditions
  • Fog


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