Results We introduce a novel and systematic workflow, Thermodynamic and Aggregation Fingerprinting (ThAgg-Fip), for detailed biophysical characterisation, and apply it to nine different MM patient-derived IgLCs. Our set of pathogenic IgLCs spans the entire range of values in those parameters previously proposed to define in vivo amyloidogenicity; however, none actually forms amyloid in patients. Even more surprisingly, we were able to show that all our IgLCs are able to form amyloid fibrils readily in vitro under the influence of proteolytic cleavage by co-purified cathepsins.
Conclusions We show that (I) in vivo aggregation behaviour is unlikely to be mechanistically linked to any single biophysical or biochemical parameter and (II) amyloidogenic potential is widespread in IgLC sequences and is not confined to those sequences that form amyloid fibrils in patients. Our findings suggest that protein sequence, environmental conditions and presence and action of proteases all determine the ability of light chains to form amyloid fibrils in patients.
- Multiple myeloma
- AL amyloidosis
- Light chain
- Multiparametric approach