Whole grain-rich diet reduces body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation without inducing major changes of the gut microbiome: a randomised cross-over trial

Henrik Munch Roager, Josef Korbinian Vogt, Mette Kristensen, Lea Benedicte S Hansen, Sabine Ibrügger, Rasmus B Mærkedahl, Martin Iain Bahl, Mads Vendelbo Lind, Rikke Linnemann Nielsen, Hanne Frøkiær, Rikke Juul Gøbel, Rikard Landberg, Alastair B Ross, Susanne Brix, Jesper Holck, Anne S. Meyer, Morten H Sparholt, Anders F Christensen, Vera Carvalho, Jens Juul Holst & 17 others Jüri Johannes Rumessen, Allan Linneberg, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Marlene Danner Dalgaard, Andreas Blennow, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Silas Granato Villas-Bôas, Karsten Kristiansen, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen, Claus T Ekstrøm, Christian Ritz, Henrik Bjørn Nielsen, Oluf Borbye Pedersen, Ramneek Gupta*, Lotte Lauritzen, Tine Rask Licht

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Objective To investigate whether a whole grain diet alters the gut microbiome and insulin sensitivity, as well as biomarkers of metabolic health and gut functionality. Design 60 Danish adults at risk of developing metabolic syndrome were included in a randomised cross-over trial with two 8-week dietary intervention periods comprising whole grain diet and refined grain diet, separated by a washout period of ≥6 weeks. The response to the interventions on the gut microbiome composition and insulin sensitivity as well on measures of glucose and lipid metabolism, gut functionality, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and urine metabolomics were assessed. Results 50 participants completed both periods with a whole grain intake of 179±50 g/day and 13±10 g/day in the whole grain and refined grain period, respectively. Compliance was confirmed by a difference in plasma alkylresorcinols (p<0.0001). Compared with refined grain, whole grain did not significantly alter glucose homeostasis and did not induce major changes in the faecal microbiome. Also, breath hydrogen levels, plasma short-chain fatty acids, intestinal integrity and intestinal transit time were not affected. The whole grain diet did, however, compared with the refined grain diet, decrease body weight (p<0.0001), serum inflammatory markers, interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.009) and C-reactive protein (p=0.003). The reduction in body weight was consistent with a reduction in energy intake, and IL-6 reduction was associated with the amount of whole grain consumed, in particular with intake of rye. Conclusion Compared with refined grain diet, whole grain diet did not alter insulin sensitivity and gut microbiome but reduced body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation.
Original languageEnglish
JournalGut
Volume68
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)83-93
ISSN0017-5749
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • colonic microflora
  • diet
  • immune response
  • inflammation
  • obesity

Cite this

Roager, Henrik Munch ; Vogt, Josef Korbinian ; Kristensen, Mette ; Hansen, Lea Benedicte S ; Ibrügger, Sabine ; Mærkedahl, Rasmus B ; Bahl, Martin Iain ; Lind, Mads Vendelbo ; Nielsen, Rikke Linnemann ; Frøkiær, Hanne ; Gøbel, Rikke Juul ; Landberg, Rikard ; Ross, Alastair B ; Brix, Susanne ; Holck, Jesper ; Meyer, Anne S. ; Sparholt, Morten H ; Christensen, Anders F ; Carvalho, Vera ; Holst, Jens Juul ; Rumessen, Jüri Johannes ; Linneberg, Allan ; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas ; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner ; Blennow, Andreas ; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz ; Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato ; Kristiansen, Karsten ; Vestergaard, Henrik ; Hansen, Torben ; Ekstrøm, Claus T ; Ritz, Christian ; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn ; Pedersen, Oluf Borbye ; Gupta, Ramneek ; Lauritzen, Lotte ; Licht, Tine Rask. / Whole grain-rich diet reduces body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation without inducing major changes of the gut microbiome: a randomised cross-over trial. In: Gut. 2019 ; Vol. 68, No. 1. pp. 83-93.
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title = "Whole grain-rich diet reduces body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation without inducing major changes of the gut microbiome: a randomised cross-over trial",
abstract = "Objective To investigate whether a whole grain diet alters the gut microbiome and insulin sensitivity, as well as biomarkers of metabolic health and gut functionality. Design 60 Danish adults at risk of developing metabolic syndrome were included in a randomised cross-over trial with two 8-week dietary intervention periods comprising whole grain diet and refined grain diet, separated by a washout period of ≥6 weeks. The response to the interventions on the gut microbiome composition and insulin sensitivity as well on measures of glucose and lipid metabolism, gut functionality, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and urine metabolomics were assessed. Results 50 participants completed both periods with a whole grain intake of 179±50 g/day and 13±10 g/day in the whole grain and refined grain period, respectively. Compliance was confirmed by a difference in plasma alkylresorcinols (p<0.0001). Compared with refined grain, whole grain did not significantly alter glucose homeostasis and did not induce major changes in the faecal microbiome. Also, breath hydrogen levels, plasma short-chain fatty acids, intestinal integrity and intestinal transit time were not affected. The whole grain diet did, however, compared with the refined grain diet, decrease body weight (p<0.0001), serum inflammatory markers, interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.009) and C-reactive protein (p=0.003). The reduction in body weight was consistent with a reduction in energy intake, and IL-6 reduction was associated with the amount of whole grain consumed, in particular with intake of rye. Conclusion Compared with refined grain diet, whole grain diet did not alter insulin sensitivity and gut microbiome but reduced body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation.",
keywords = "colonic microflora, diet, immune response, inflammation, obesity",
author = "Roager, {Henrik Munch} and Vogt, {Josef Korbinian} and Mette Kristensen and Hansen, {Lea Benedicte S} and Sabine Ibr{\"u}gger and M{\ae}rkedahl, {Rasmus B} and Bahl, {Martin Iain} and Lind, {Mads Vendelbo} and Nielsen, {Rikke Linnemann} and Hanne Fr{\o}ki{\ae}r and G{\o}bel, {Rikke Juul} and Rikard Landberg and Ross, {Alastair B} and Susanne Brix and Jesper Holck and Meyer, {Anne S.} and Sparholt, {Morten H} and Christensen, {Anders F} and Vera Carvalho and Holst, {Jens Juul} and Rumessen, {J{\"u}ri Johannes} and Allan Linneberg and Thomas Sicheritz-Pont{\'e}n and Dalgaard, {Marlene Danner} and Andreas Blennow and Frandsen, {Henrik Lauritz} and Villas-B{\^o}as, {Silas Granato} and Karsten Kristiansen and Henrik Vestergaard and Torben Hansen and Ekstr{\o}m, {Claus T} and Christian Ritz and Nielsen, {Henrik Bj{\o}rn} and Pedersen, {Oluf Borbye} and Ramneek Gupta and Lotte Lauritzen and Licht, {Tine Rask}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1136/gutjnl-2017-314786",
language = "English",
volume = "68",
pages = "83--93",
journal = "Gut",
issn = "0017-5749",
publisher = "B M J Group",
number = "1",

}

Roager, HM, Vogt, JK, Kristensen, M, Hansen, LBS, Ibrügger, S, Mærkedahl, RB, Bahl, MI, Lind, MV, Nielsen, RL, Frøkiær, H, Gøbel, RJ, Landberg, R, Ross, AB, Brix, S, Holck, J, Meyer, AS, Sparholt, MH, Christensen, AF, Carvalho, V, Holst, JJ, Rumessen, JJ, Linneberg, A, Sicheritz-Pontén, T, Dalgaard, MD, Blennow, A, Frandsen, HL, Villas-Bôas, SG, Kristiansen, K, Vestergaard, H, Hansen, T, Ekstrøm, CT, Ritz, C, Nielsen, HB, Pedersen, OB, Gupta, R, Lauritzen, L & Licht, TR 2019, 'Whole grain-rich diet reduces body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation without inducing major changes of the gut microbiome: a randomised cross-over trial', Gut, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 83-93. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2017-314786

Whole grain-rich diet reduces body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation without inducing major changes of the gut microbiome: a randomised cross-over trial. / Roager, Henrik Munch; Vogt, Josef Korbinian; Kristensen, Mette; Hansen, Lea Benedicte S; Ibrügger, Sabine; Mærkedahl, Rasmus B; Bahl, Martin Iain; Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Nielsen, Rikke Linnemann; Frøkiær, Hanne; Gøbel, Rikke Juul; Landberg, Rikard; Ross, Alastair B; Brix, Susanne; Holck, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S.; Sparholt, Morten H; Christensen, Anders F; Carvalho, Vera; Holst, Jens Juul; Rumessen, Jüri Johannes; Linneberg, Allan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Blennow, Andreas; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Kristiansen, Karsten; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Ekstrøm, Claus T; Ritz, Christian; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Pedersen, Oluf Borbye; Gupta, Ramneek; Lauritzen, Lotte; Licht, Tine Rask.

In: Gut, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2019, p. 83-93.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Whole grain-rich diet reduces body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation without inducing major changes of the gut microbiome: a randomised cross-over trial

AU - Roager, Henrik Munch

AU - Vogt, Josef Korbinian

AU - Kristensen, Mette

AU - Hansen, Lea Benedicte S

AU - Ibrügger, Sabine

AU - Mærkedahl, Rasmus B

AU - Bahl, Martin Iain

AU - Lind, Mads Vendelbo

AU - Nielsen, Rikke Linnemann

AU - Frøkiær, Hanne

AU - Gøbel, Rikke Juul

AU - Landberg, Rikard

AU - Ross, Alastair B

AU - Brix, Susanne

AU - Holck, Jesper

AU - Meyer, Anne S.

AU - Sparholt, Morten H

AU - Christensen, Anders F

AU - Carvalho, Vera

AU - Holst, Jens Juul

AU - Rumessen, Jüri Johannes

AU - Linneberg, Allan

AU - Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

AU - Dalgaard, Marlene Danner

AU - Blennow, Andreas

AU - Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

AU - Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato

AU - Kristiansen, Karsten

AU - Vestergaard, Henrik

AU - Hansen, Torben

AU - Ekstrøm, Claus T

AU - Ritz, Christian

AU - Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

AU - Pedersen, Oluf Borbye

AU - Gupta, Ramneek

AU - Lauritzen, Lotte

AU - Licht, Tine Rask

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Objective To investigate whether a whole grain diet alters the gut microbiome and insulin sensitivity, as well as biomarkers of metabolic health and gut functionality. Design 60 Danish adults at risk of developing metabolic syndrome were included in a randomised cross-over trial with two 8-week dietary intervention periods comprising whole grain diet and refined grain diet, separated by a washout period of ≥6 weeks. The response to the interventions on the gut microbiome composition and insulin sensitivity as well on measures of glucose and lipid metabolism, gut functionality, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and urine metabolomics were assessed. Results 50 participants completed both periods with a whole grain intake of 179±50 g/day and 13±10 g/day in the whole grain and refined grain period, respectively. Compliance was confirmed by a difference in plasma alkylresorcinols (p<0.0001). Compared with refined grain, whole grain did not significantly alter glucose homeostasis and did not induce major changes in the faecal microbiome. Also, breath hydrogen levels, plasma short-chain fatty acids, intestinal integrity and intestinal transit time were not affected. The whole grain diet did, however, compared with the refined grain diet, decrease body weight (p<0.0001), serum inflammatory markers, interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.009) and C-reactive protein (p=0.003). The reduction in body weight was consistent with a reduction in energy intake, and IL-6 reduction was associated with the amount of whole grain consumed, in particular with intake of rye. Conclusion Compared with refined grain diet, whole grain diet did not alter insulin sensitivity and gut microbiome but reduced body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation.

AB - Objective To investigate whether a whole grain diet alters the gut microbiome and insulin sensitivity, as well as biomarkers of metabolic health and gut functionality. Design 60 Danish adults at risk of developing metabolic syndrome were included in a randomised cross-over trial with two 8-week dietary intervention periods comprising whole grain diet and refined grain diet, separated by a washout period of ≥6 weeks. The response to the interventions on the gut microbiome composition and insulin sensitivity as well on measures of glucose and lipid metabolism, gut functionality, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and urine metabolomics were assessed. Results 50 participants completed both periods with a whole grain intake of 179±50 g/day and 13±10 g/day in the whole grain and refined grain period, respectively. Compliance was confirmed by a difference in plasma alkylresorcinols (p<0.0001). Compared with refined grain, whole grain did not significantly alter glucose homeostasis and did not induce major changes in the faecal microbiome. Also, breath hydrogen levels, plasma short-chain fatty acids, intestinal integrity and intestinal transit time were not affected. The whole grain diet did, however, compared with the refined grain diet, decrease body weight (p<0.0001), serum inflammatory markers, interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.009) and C-reactive protein (p=0.003). The reduction in body weight was consistent with a reduction in energy intake, and IL-6 reduction was associated with the amount of whole grain consumed, in particular with intake of rye. Conclusion Compared with refined grain diet, whole grain diet did not alter insulin sensitivity and gut microbiome but reduced body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation.

KW - colonic microflora

KW - diet

KW - immune response

KW - inflammation

KW - obesity

U2 - 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-314786

DO - 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-314786

M3 - Journal article

VL - 68

SP - 83

EP - 93

JO - Gut

JF - Gut

SN - 0017-5749

IS - 1

ER -