Wheat straw based polygeneration systems integrating the electricity, heating and transport sector

René Kofler*, Lasse Røngaard Clausen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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To achieve a 100% renewable energy system, plants integrating the electricity, heating and transport sectors in a Smart Energy System are required. In this work, three different polygeneration plants producing biofuels and heat, while interacting with the electricity grid are presented. All plants were based on wheat straw gasification in a low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasifier. High quality bio-oil was produced by catalytically upgrading and condensing the tars in the produced gas. Additionally, bio-ash containing carbon was produced, which acts as fertilizer and carbon sequestration when returned to the fields. The three plants used the tar-free gas to produce electricity, synthetic natural gas (SNG) and dimethyl ether (DME), respectively. The electricity producing plant delivered electricity to the grid, while the SNG and DME production plants used electricity for producing electrolytic hydrogen to boost the fuel production. The plants were evaluated using energy and carbon efficiencies. The analysis showed that all plants achieved total energy efficiencies >83%, including process heat and district heating as by-products. The SNG production plant yielded the highest carbon efficiency (91%) of carbon bound in bio-fuels and bio-ash, followed by the DME (50%) and the electricity production plant (23%).
Original languageEnglish
Article number100015
JournalSmart Energy
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Biofuels
  • Biorefinery
  • Biomass gasification
  • Dimethyl ether (DME)
  • Electrofuels
  • Polygeneration
  • Power-to-gas
  • Power-to-liquid
  • Synthetic natural gas (SNG)
  • Thermodynamic analysis
  • Wheat straw

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