What does a well-functioning heating system look like? Investigation of ten Danish buildings that utilize district heating efficiently

Dorte Skaarup Østergaard*, Michele Tunzi, Svend Svendsen

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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    Abstract

    In order to reach targeted 4th generation district heating temperatures around 55 °C supply and 25 °C return, it is necessary to ensure that heating installations inside buildings are designed and operated properly. In this study we investigated the best-case of current design and operation of building installations with the aim of identifying whether there is a gap between current best-case examples and future temperature targets. The study included 7 single-family dwellings and 3 apartment buildings, that were selected based on their low district heating return temperature. Data from the building substations showed that single-family dwellings obtained return temperatures in the range from 25-30 °C while the apartment buildings had return temperatures in the range of 30-40 °C. This indicates that there is a gap between the best functioning heating installations in apartment buildings today, and the targeted district heating return temperatures of 25-30 °C in future 4th generation district heating networks. District heating return temperatures in the range of 30-40 °C could however be the initial ambition for the existing buildings all around Europe that are expected to be connected to new district heating systems in the near future.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number120250
    JournalEnergy
    Volume227
    ISSN0360-5442
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2021

    Keywords

    • Low-temperature district heating
    • 4th generation district heating
    • District heating substations
    • Low return temperatures
    • Space heating
    • Domestic hot water

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