What Can We Learn from a Metagenomic Analysis of a Georgian Bacteriophage Cocktail?

Henrike Zschach, Katrine Grimstrup Joensen, Barbara Lindhard, Ole Lund, Marina Goderdzishvili, Irina Chkonia, Guliko Jgenti, Nino Kvatadze, Zemphira Alavidze, Elizabeth M Kutter, Henrik Hasman, Mette Voldby Larsen

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Phage therapy, a practice widespread in Eastern Europe, has untapped potential in the combat against antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. However, technology transfer to Western medicine is proving challenging. Bioinformatics analysis could help to facilitate this endeavor. In the present study, the Intesti phage cocktail, a key commercial product of the Eliava Institute, Georgia, has been tested on a selection of bacterial strains, sequenced as a metagenomic sample, de novo assembled and analyzed by bioinformatics methods. Furthermore, eight bacterial host strains were infected with the cocktail and the resulting lysates sequenced and compared to the unamplified cocktail. The analysis identified 23 major phage clusters in different abundances in the cocktail, among those clusters related to the ICTV genera T4likevirus, T5likevirus, T7likevirus, Chilikevirus and Twortlikevirus, as well as a cluster that was quite distant to the database sequences and a novel Proteus phage cluster. Examination of the depth of coverage showed the clusters to have different abundances within the cocktail. The cocktail was found to be composed primarily of Myoviridae (35%) and Siphoviridae (32%), with Podoviridae being a minority (15%). No undesirable genes were found.
Original languageEnglish
Issue number12
Pages (from-to)6570-6589
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Eliava Intestiphage
  • metagenomics
  • phage therapy
  • whole genome sequence analysis


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