Water weakening of chalk explaied from a fluid-solid friction factor

Katrine Alling Andreassen, Ida Lykke Fabricius

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


The hypothesis behind this paper proposal is that the Biot critical frequency can be used to characterize the water weakening phenomenon physically. The Biot critical frequency determines the transition from where an applied sound velocity on a saturated porous chalk is dominated by viscous forces to where it is dominated by inertial forces, i.e. when the pore fluid motion lags behind the applied frequency. It is therefore a measure of the internal surface friction between solid and fluid which can be interpreted as a friction factor on the pore scale and we propose it can be extrapolated to the macroscale failure and pore collapse properties. The Biot critical frequency incorporates the porosity, permeability, fluid density and fluid viscosity, where the latter is highly temperature dependent – it does not include the applied sound velocity frequency. The listed parameters are usually determined during laboratory tests and the fluid viscosity and density may be found in tabulated references. There exist a number of previously published laboratory test results on chalk which was collected from Brazilian, unconfined compression and triaxial tests. The data spans four different chalk types which were tested at temperatures from 20°C to 130°C with the following pore fluids: fresh water, synthetic seawater of different chemical compositions, methanol, glycol, and oil of varying viscosity. The data was evaluated according to failure lines and yield envelopes for all fluids and temperatures while using the Biot critical frequency as a single reference. Other viscoplastic parameters were investigated in the same manner to verify the range of the functioning of the friction factor. The findings show that the Biot critical frequency can be used as a common friction factor and is useful in combining laboratory results. It is also inferred that the observed water weakening phenomenon may be attributed to the friction between solid and fluid.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRock Mechanics in the Nordic Countries 2010
Publication date2010
Publication statusPublished - 2010
EventRock Mechanics in the Nordic Countries 2010 - Kongsberg, Norway
Duration: 9 Jun 201012 Jun 2010


ConferenceRock Mechanics in the Nordic Countries 2010


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