Water-flushing toilets: Systemic development and path-dependent characteristics and their bearing on technological alternatives

Maj-Britt Quitzau

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    In this study, I analyse the historical process that led to embedding water-flushing toilets in the Western world, then I explore innovative developments connected to alternative toilet solutions that use less water. The core argument is that path-dependent characteristics are found both at the systemic level and the level of daily practices. Systemic development and its embedding into daily practices changed and contributed to a lock-in. Then current attempts to introduce alternative toilet solutions are analysed. I conclude by suggesting that established water-flushing routines impede the distribution of alternative toilet solutions, although some potential remains.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalTechnology in Society
    Volume29
    Pages (from-to)351-360
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2007

    Keywords

    • sewage
    • path dependence
    • toilets
    • water-flushing toilets

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