Water-based manufacturing of lithium ion battery for life cycle impact mitigation

Chris Yuan*, Huajun Cao, Kang Shen, Yelin Deng, Dan Zeng, Yan Dong, Michael Hauschild

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Water-based manufacturing processes are under development for greener manufacturing of lithium ion batteries but their environmental impacts are unclear with new introduced materials and a large consumption of deionized water. We report a life cycle assessment (LCA) study on the water-based manufacturing of the most popular NMC-graphite battery pack configured with 57 kWh capacity. A life cycle model has been developed based on experimental and mathematical studies of the water-based manufacturing processes. Per kg battery pack produced, the water-based manufacturing can reduce the manufacturing energy by 43% and lower the cradle-to-gate life cycle impacts by 0.6%∼88% over conventional battery manufacturing.
Original languageEnglish
JournalC I R P Annals
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)25-28
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Life cycle
  • Analysis
  • Battery manufacturing


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