Wafer-Scale Synthesis of Graphene on Sapphire: Toward Fab-Compatible Graphene

Neeraj Mishra, Stiven Forti, Filippo Fabbri, Leonardo Martini, Clifford McAleese, Ben R. Conran, Patrick Rebsdorf Whelan, Abhay Shivayogimath, Bjarke Sørensen Jessen, Lars Buß, Jens Falta, Ilirjan Aliaj, Stefano Roddaro, Jan I. Flege, Peter Bøggild, Kenneth B. K. Teo, Camilla Coletti*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

The adoption of graphene in electronics, optoelectronics, and photonics is hindered by the difficulty in obtaining high-quality material on technologically relevant substrates, over wafer-scale sizes, and with metal contamination levels compatible with industrial requirements. To date, the direct growth of graphene on insulating substrates has proved to be challenging, usually requiring metal-catalysts or yielding defective graphene. In this work, a metal-free approach implemented in commercially available reactors to obtain high-quality monolayer graphene on c-plane sapphire substrates via chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. Low energy electron diffraction, low energy electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements identify the Al-rich reconstruction (√31×√31) R ± 9° of sapphire to be crucial for obtaining epitaxial graphene. Raman spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements reveal high-quality graphene with mobilities consistently above 2000 cm2 V-1 s-1. The process is scaled up to 4 and 6 in. wafers sizes and metal contamination levels are retrieved to be within the limits for back-end-of-line integration. The growth process introduced here establishes a method for the synthesis of wafer-scale graphene films on a technologically viable basis.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1904906
JournalSmall
Volume15
Issue number50
Number of pages8
ISSN1613-6810
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

© 2019 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Keywords

  • Graphene on insulator
  • Interface
  • Metal free
  • Sapphire
  • Wafer scale

Cite this

Mishra, N., Forti, S., Fabbri, F., Martini, L., McAleese, C., Conran, B. R., ... Coletti, C. (2019). Wafer-Scale Synthesis of Graphene on Sapphire: Toward Fab-Compatible Graphene. Small, 15(50), [e1904906]. https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201904906
Mishra, Neeraj ; Forti, Stiven ; Fabbri, Filippo ; Martini, Leonardo ; McAleese, Clifford ; Conran, Ben R. ; Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf ; Shivayogimath, Abhay ; Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen ; Buß, Lars ; Falta, Jens ; Aliaj, Ilirjan ; Roddaro, Stefano ; Flege, Jan I. ; Bøggild, Peter ; Teo, Kenneth B. K. ; Coletti, Camilla. / Wafer-Scale Synthesis of Graphene on Sapphire: Toward Fab-Compatible Graphene. In: Small. 2019 ; Vol. 15, No. 50.
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abstract = "The adoption of graphene in electronics, optoelectronics, and photonics is hindered by the difficulty in obtaining high-quality material on technologically relevant substrates, over wafer-scale sizes, and with metal contamination levels compatible with industrial requirements. To date, the direct growth of graphene on insulating substrates has proved to be challenging, usually requiring metal-catalysts or yielding defective graphene. In this work, a metal-free approach implemented in commercially available reactors to obtain high-quality monolayer graphene on c-plane sapphire substrates via chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. Low energy electron diffraction, low energy electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements identify the Al-rich reconstruction (√31×√31) R ± 9° of sapphire to be crucial for obtaining epitaxial graphene. Raman spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements reveal high-quality graphene with mobilities consistently above 2000 cm2 V-1 s-1. The process is scaled up to 4 and 6 in. wafers sizes and metal contamination levels are retrieved to be within the limits for back-end-of-line integration. The growth process introduced here establishes a method for the synthesis of wafer-scale graphene films on a technologically viable basis.",
keywords = "Graphene on insulator, Interface, Metal free, Sapphire, Wafer scale",
author = "Neeraj Mishra and Stiven Forti and Filippo Fabbri and Leonardo Martini and Clifford McAleese and Conran, {Ben R.} and Whelan, {Patrick Rebsdorf} and Abhay Shivayogimath and Jessen, {Bjarke S{\o}rensen} and Lars Bu{\ss} and Jens Falta and Ilirjan Aliaj and Stefano Roddaro and Flege, {Jan I.} and Peter B{\o}ggild and Teo, {Kenneth B. K.} and Camilla Coletti",
note = "{\circledC} 2019 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1002/smll.201904906",
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Mishra, N, Forti, S, Fabbri, F, Martini, L, McAleese, C, Conran, BR, Whelan, PR, Shivayogimath, A, Jessen, BS, Buß, L, Falta, J, Aliaj, I, Roddaro, S, Flege, JI, Bøggild, P, Teo, KBK & Coletti, C 2019, 'Wafer-Scale Synthesis of Graphene on Sapphire: Toward Fab-Compatible Graphene', Small, vol. 15, no. 50, e1904906. https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201904906

Wafer-Scale Synthesis of Graphene on Sapphire: Toward Fab-Compatible Graphene. / Mishra, Neeraj; Forti, Stiven; Fabbri, Filippo; Martini, Leonardo; McAleese, Clifford; Conran, Ben R.; Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf; Shivayogimath, Abhay; Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen; Buß, Lars; Falta, Jens; Aliaj, Ilirjan; Roddaro, Stefano; Flege, Jan I.; Bøggild, Peter; Teo, Kenneth B. K.; Coletti, Camilla.

In: Small, Vol. 15, No. 50, e1904906, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Wafer-Scale Synthesis of Graphene on Sapphire: Toward Fab-Compatible Graphene

AU - Mishra, Neeraj

AU - Forti, Stiven

AU - Fabbri, Filippo

AU - Martini, Leonardo

AU - McAleese, Clifford

AU - Conran, Ben R.

AU - Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf

AU - Shivayogimath, Abhay

AU - Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen

AU - Buß, Lars

AU - Falta, Jens

AU - Aliaj, Ilirjan

AU - Roddaro, Stefano

AU - Flege, Jan I.

AU - Bøggild, Peter

AU - Teo, Kenneth B. K.

AU - Coletti, Camilla

N1 - © 2019 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - The adoption of graphene in electronics, optoelectronics, and photonics is hindered by the difficulty in obtaining high-quality material on technologically relevant substrates, over wafer-scale sizes, and with metal contamination levels compatible with industrial requirements. To date, the direct growth of graphene on insulating substrates has proved to be challenging, usually requiring metal-catalysts or yielding defective graphene. In this work, a metal-free approach implemented in commercially available reactors to obtain high-quality monolayer graphene on c-plane sapphire substrates via chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. Low energy electron diffraction, low energy electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements identify the Al-rich reconstruction (√31×√31) R ± 9° of sapphire to be crucial for obtaining epitaxial graphene. Raman spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements reveal high-quality graphene with mobilities consistently above 2000 cm2 V-1 s-1. The process is scaled up to 4 and 6 in. wafers sizes and metal contamination levels are retrieved to be within the limits for back-end-of-line integration. The growth process introduced here establishes a method for the synthesis of wafer-scale graphene films on a technologically viable basis.

AB - The adoption of graphene in electronics, optoelectronics, and photonics is hindered by the difficulty in obtaining high-quality material on technologically relevant substrates, over wafer-scale sizes, and with metal contamination levels compatible with industrial requirements. To date, the direct growth of graphene on insulating substrates has proved to be challenging, usually requiring metal-catalysts or yielding defective graphene. In this work, a metal-free approach implemented in commercially available reactors to obtain high-quality monolayer graphene on c-plane sapphire substrates via chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. Low energy electron diffraction, low energy electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements identify the Al-rich reconstruction (√31×√31) R ± 9° of sapphire to be crucial for obtaining epitaxial graphene. Raman spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements reveal high-quality graphene with mobilities consistently above 2000 cm2 V-1 s-1. The process is scaled up to 4 and 6 in. wafers sizes and metal contamination levels are retrieved to be within the limits for back-end-of-line integration. The growth process introduced here establishes a method for the synthesis of wafer-scale graphene films on a technologically viable basis.

KW - Graphene on insulator

KW - Interface

KW - Metal free

KW - Sapphire

KW - Wafer scale

U2 - 10.1002/smll.201904906

DO - 10.1002/smll.201904906

M3 - Journal article

VL - 15

JO - Small

JF - Small

SN - 1613-6810

IS - 50

M1 - e1904906

ER -

Mishra N, Forti S, Fabbri F, Martini L, McAleese C, Conran BR et al. Wafer-Scale Synthesis of Graphene on Sapphire: Toward Fab-Compatible Graphene. Small. 2019;15(50). e1904906. https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.201904906