Wafer-Scale Nanopillars Derived from Block Copolymer Lithography for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

Tao Li, Kaiyu Wu, Tomas Rindzevicius, Zhongli Wang, Lars Schulte, Michael Stenbæk Schmidt, Anja Boisen, Sokol Ndoni

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


We report a novel nanofabrication process via block copolymer lithography using solvent vapor annealing. The nanolithography process is facile and scalable, enabling fabrication of highly ordered periodic patterns over entire wafers as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Direct silicon etching with high aspect ratio templated by the block copolymer mask is realized without any intermediate layer or external precursors. Uniquely, an atomic layer deposition (ALD)-assisted method is introduced to allow reversing of the morphology relative to the initial pattern. As a result, highly ordered silicon nanopillar arrays are fabricated with controlled aspect ratios. After metallization, the resulting nanopillar arrays are suitable for SERS applications. These structures readily exhibit an average SERS enhancement factor of above 108, SERS uniformities of 8.5% relative standard deviation across 4 cm, and 6.5% relative standard deviation over 5 × 5 mm2 surface area, as well as a very low SERS background. The as-prepared SERS substrate, with a good enhancement and large-area uniformity, is promising for practical SERS sensing applications.
Original languageEnglish
JournalA C S Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number24
Pages (from-to)15668-75
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • SERS uniformity
  • block copolymer lithography
  • nanofabrication
  • plasmonic nanomaterials
  • surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy


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