Voltage-Sensitive Load Controllers for Voltage Regulation and Increased Load Factor in Distribution Systems

Philip James Douglass, Rodrigo Garcia-Valle, Jacob Østergaard, Octavian Constantin Tudora

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This paper presents a novel controller design for controlling appliances based on local measurements of voltage. The controller finds the normalized voltage deviation accounting for the sensitivity of voltage measurements to appliance state. The controller produces a signal indicating desired power consumption which can be mapped to temperature setpoint offsets of thermostat controlled loads. In networks where a lower voltage level corresponds to high system load (and vice versa), this controller acts to regulate voltage and increase the load factor. Simulations are conducted on low- and medium-voltage distribution systems with residential loads including voltage-sensitive water heaters. In low-voltage systems, the results of the simulations show the controller to be effective at reducing the extremes of voltage and increasing the load factor while respecting end-use temperature constraints. In medium-voltage systems, the simulation results show the controller to be effective at reducing voltage fluctuations that occur at the 10-minute time scale.
Original languageEnglish
JournalI E E E Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)2394-2401
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Autonomous demand response
  • demand side
  • distributed energy resources
  • voltage regulation
  • control system synthesis
  • domestic appliances
  • load regulation
  • power consumption
  • power distribution control
  • thermostats
  • voltage control
  • voltage measurement
  • Communication, Networking and Broadcast Technologies
  • Computing and Processing
  • Power, Energy and Industry Applications
  • time 6.0E+02 s
  • appliances
  • Home appliances
  • Load modeling
  • low-voltage distribution system
  • medium-voltage distribution system
  • normalized voltage
  • Power demand
  • Reactive power
  • temperature setpoint offset
  • thermostat controlled load
  • time 10 min
  • Voltage control
  • Voltage measurement
  • voltage-sensitive load controller design
  • voltage-sensitive water heater
  • Water heating

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