Vitamin D status in infants: relation to nutrition and season

M. Østergard, K. Arnberg, K. F. Michaelsen, A. L. Madsen, H. Krarup, Ellen Trolle, C. Mølgaard

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In a cross-sectional study, the primary objective was to assess the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) in healthy 9-month-old infants (n = 255). The secondary objective was to evaluate nutritional variables and season in relation to 25(OH) D. The concentration of 25(OH) D was 77.2 +/- 22.7 nmol/l (mean +/- s.d.), ranging from 12 to 151 nmol/l. During the first 9 months, 97% received vitamin D supplementation (10 mu g/day) and 89% had sufficient levels of 25(OH) D (50-250 nmol/l). In multiple regression analysis, controlled for body mass index (BMI) and intake of infant formula, a longer period of exclusive breastfeeding (P = 0.026) and breastfeeding at 9 months (P = 0.001) were both associated with lower levels. Dietary vitamin D intake was 4.4 +/- 3.1 mu g/day and in multiple regression analysis, controlled for BMI, intake of infant formula and mean energy intake, it was positively associated with 25(OH) D (P = 0.001). There was a significant seasonal difference in 25(OH) D, with higher levels during summer-autumn compared with winter-spring (P = 0.021) after control for BMI. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65, 657-660; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.285; published online 19 January 2011
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)657-660
Publication statusPublished - 2011


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