Vitamin D Status and Seasonal Variation among Danish Children and Adults: A Descriptive Study

Louise Hansen*, Anne Tjønneland, Brian Køster, Christine Brot, Rikke Andersen, Arieh S Cohen, Kirsten Frederiksen, Anja Olsen

*Corresponding author for this work

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The aim of the present study was to describe vitamin D status and seasonal variation in the general Danish population. In this study, 3092 persons aged 2 to 69 years (2565 adults, 527 children) had blood drawn twice (spring and autumn) between 2012 and 2014. A sub-sample of participants had blood samples taken monthly over a year. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and information on supplement use was assessed from questionnaires. Seasonal variations in 25(OH)D concentrations were evaluated graphically and descriptively, and status according to age, sex, and supplement use was described. It was found that 86% of both adults and children were vitamin D-sufficient in either spring and or/autumn; however, many had a spring concentration below 50 nmol/L. A wide range of 25(OH)D concentrations were found in spring and autumn, with very low and very high values in both seasons. Among adults, women in general had higher median 25(OH)D concentrations than men. Furthermore, vitamin D supplement use was substantial and affected the median concentrations markedly, more so during spring than autumn. Seasonal variation was thus found to be substantial, and bi-seasonal measurements are vital in order to capture the sizable fluctuations in vitamin D status in this Nordic population.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1801
Issue number11
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • 25(OH)D
  • Denmark
  • StatusD
  • seasonal variation
  • vitamin D deficiency
  • vitamin D status
  • Nutrition. Foods and food supply
  • TX341-641

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