Vitamin D status and current policies to achieve adequate vitamin D intake in the Nordic countries

Suvi T Itkonen*, Rikke Andersen, Anne K. Björk, Åsa Brugård Konde, Hanna Eneroth, Maijaliisa Erkkola, Kristin Holvik, Ahmed A Madar, Haakon E. Meyer, Inge Tetens, Jóhanna E Torfadóttir, Birna Thórisdóttir, Christel J. E. Lamberg-Allardt

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Aims: Nordic countries share fairly similar food culture and geographical location as well as common nutrition recommendations. The aim of this paper was to review the latest data on vitamin D status and intake and to describe the national supplementation and food fortification policies to achieve adequate vitamin D intake in the Nordic countries. Methods: The data are based on results derived from a literature search presented in a workshop held in Helsinki in November 2018 and completed by recent studies. Results: Vitamin D policies and the implementation of the recommendations differ among the Nordic countries. Vitamin D fortification policies can be mandatory or voluntary and widespread, moderate or non-existent. Vitamin D supplementation recommendations differ, ranging from all age groups being advised to take supplements to only infants. In the general adult population of the Nordic countries, vitamin D status and intake are better than in the risk groups that are not consuming vitamin D supplements or foods containing vitamin D. Non-Western immigrant populations in all Nordic countries share the problem of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency. Conclusions: Despite the common nutrition recommendations, there are differences between the Nordic countries in the implementation of the recommendations and policies to achieve adequate vitamin D intake and status. There is a need for wider Nordic collaboration studies as well as strategies to improve vitamin D status, especially in risk groups.
Original languageEnglish
JournalScandinavian Journal of Public Health
Pages (from-to)1-12
ISSN1403-4948
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020

Cite this

Itkonen, S. T., Andersen, R., Björk, A. K., Brugård Konde, Å., Eneroth, H., Erkkola, M., ... Lamberg-Allardt, C. J. E. (Accepted/In press). Vitamin D status and current policies to achieve adequate vitamin D intake in the Nordic countries. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494819896878