Vitamin D-fortified foods improve wintertime vitamin D status in women of Danish and Pakistani origin living in Denmark: a randomized controlled trial

Ida Marie Grønborg*, Inge Tetens, Tue Christensen, Elisabeth Wreford Andersen, Jette Jakobsen, Mairead Kiely, Kevin D. Cashman, Rikke Andersen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: Low vitamin D status is prevalent worldwide. We aim to investigate the effect of vitamin D fortification on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in women of Danish and Pakistani origin at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Methods: A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial during winter time, designed to provide 20 µg vitamin D 3 /day through fortified yoghurt, cheese, eggs and crisp bread, and assess the change in serum 25(OH)D. Participants were 143 women of Danish and Pakistani origin, living in Denmark, randomized into four groups, stratified by ethnicity. Results: Mean (SD) baseline 25(OH)D concentrations among women of Danish and Pakistani origin were 49.6 (18) and 46.9 (22) nmol/L, respectively (P = 0.4). While 9% of Danish women had 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L, the prevalence among women of Pakistani origin was 24%. Median (IQR) vitamin D intake among Danish and Pakistani women at endpoint was 32.0 (27.0, 34.4) µg/day and 24.2 (19.2, 30.8) µg/day, respectively. Endpoint serum 25(OH)D increased in fortified groups to 77.8 (14) nmol/L among Danish women and 54.7 (18) nmol/L among women of Pakistani origin (P < 0.01). At endpoint, 0% in the Danish-fortified group and 3% in the Pakistani-fortified group had 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L, compared with 23 % and 34% in their respective control groups. Conclusions: Vitamin D fortification of four different foods for 12 weeks during winter was effective in increasing serum 25(OH)D and reducing the prevalence of very low vitamin D status among women of Danish and Pakistani origin. ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier: NCT02631629.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
ISSN1436-6207
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2019

Keywords

  • Vitamin D
  • Food-based RCT
  • ODIN
  • Women of Parkistani origin
  • Women of Danish origin
  • Fortified foods

Cite this

@article{e49bc8d50e0544d8b2e7aa4f69c93bb3,
title = "Vitamin D-fortified foods improve wintertime vitamin D status in women of Danish and Pakistani origin living in Denmark: a randomized controlled trial",
abstract = "Purpose: Low vitamin D status is prevalent worldwide. We aim to investigate the effect of vitamin D fortification on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in women of Danish and Pakistani origin at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Methods: A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial during winter time, designed to provide 20 µg vitamin D 3 /day through fortified yoghurt, cheese, eggs and crisp bread, and assess the change in serum 25(OH)D. Participants were 143 women of Danish and Pakistani origin, living in Denmark, randomized into four groups, stratified by ethnicity. Results: Mean (SD) baseline 25(OH)D concentrations among women of Danish and Pakistani origin were 49.6 (18) and 46.9 (22) nmol/L, respectively (P = 0.4). While 9{\%} of Danish women had 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L, the prevalence among women of Pakistani origin was 24{\%}. Median (IQR) vitamin D intake among Danish and Pakistani women at endpoint was 32.0 (27.0, 34.4) µg/day and 24.2 (19.2, 30.8) µg/day, respectively. Endpoint serum 25(OH)D increased in fortified groups to 77.8 (14) nmol/L among Danish women and 54.7 (18) nmol/L among women of Pakistani origin (P < 0.01). At endpoint, 0{\%} in the Danish-fortified group and 3{\%} in the Pakistani-fortified group had 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L, compared with 23 {\%} and 34{\%} in their respective control groups. Conclusions: Vitamin D fortification of four different foods for 12 weeks during winter was effective in increasing serum 25(OH)D and reducing the prevalence of very low vitamin D status among women of Danish and Pakistani origin. ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier: NCT02631629.",
keywords = "Vitamin D, Food-based RCT, ODIN, Women of Parkistani origin, Women of Danish origin, Fortified foods",
author = "Gr{\o}nborg, {Ida Marie} and Inge Tetens and Tue Christensen and Andersen, {Elisabeth Wreford} and Jette Jakobsen and Mairead Kiely and Cashman, {Kevin D.} and Rikke Andersen",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1007/s00394-019-01941-6",
language = "English",
journal = "European Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "1436-6207",
publisher = "Springer Medizin",

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Vitamin D-fortified foods improve wintertime vitamin D status in women of Danish and Pakistani origin living in Denmark: a randomized controlled trial. / Grønborg, Ida Marie; Tetens, Inge; Christensen, Tue; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Jakobsen, Jette; Kiely, Mairead; Cashman, Kevin D.; Andersen, Rikke.

In: European Journal of Nutrition, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Vitamin D-fortified foods improve wintertime vitamin D status in women of Danish and Pakistani origin living in Denmark: a randomized controlled trial

AU - Grønborg, Ida Marie

AU - Tetens, Inge

AU - Christensen, Tue

AU - Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

AU - Jakobsen, Jette

AU - Kiely, Mairead

AU - Cashman, Kevin D.

AU - Andersen, Rikke

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Purpose: Low vitamin D status is prevalent worldwide. We aim to investigate the effect of vitamin D fortification on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in women of Danish and Pakistani origin at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Methods: A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial during winter time, designed to provide 20 µg vitamin D 3 /day through fortified yoghurt, cheese, eggs and crisp bread, and assess the change in serum 25(OH)D. Participants were 143 women of Danish and Pakistani origin, living in Denmark, randomized into four groups, stratified by ethnicity. Results: Mean (SD) baseline 25(OH)D concentrations among women of Danish and Pakistani origin were 49.6 (18) and 46.9 (22) nmol/L, respectively (P = 0.4). While 9% of Danish women had 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L, the prevalence among women of Pakistani origin was 24%. Median (IQR) vitamin D intake among Danish and Pakistani women at endpoint was 32.0 (27.0, 34.4) µg/day and 24.2 (19.2, 30.8) µg/day, respectively. Endpoint serum 25(OH)D increased in fortified groups to 77.8 (14) nmol/L among Danish women and 54.7 (18) nmol/L among women of Pakistani origin (P < 0.01). At endpoint, 0% in the Danish-fortified group and 3% in the Pakistani-fortified group had 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L, compared with 23 % and 34% in their respective control groups. Conclusions: Vitamin D fortification of four different foods for 12 weeks during winter was effective in increasing serum 25(OH)D and reducing the prevalence of very low vitamin D status among women of Danish and Pakistani origin. ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier: NCT02631629.

AB - Purpose: Low vitamin D status is prevalent worldwide. We aim to investigate the effect of vitamin D fortification on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in women of Danish and Pakistani origin at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Methods: A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial during winter time, designed to provide 20 µg vitamin D 3 /day through fortified yoghurt, cheese, eggs and crisp bread, and assess the change in serum 25(OH)D. Participants were 143 women of Danish and Pakistani origin, living in Denmark, randomized into four groups, stratified by ethnicity. Results: Mean (SD) baseline 25(OH)D concentrations among women of Danish and Pakistani origin were 49.6 (18) and 46.9 (22) nmol/L, respectively (P = 0.4). While 9% of Danish women had 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L, the prevalence among women of Pakistani origin was 24%. Median (IQR) vitamin D intake among Danish and Pakistani women at endpoint was 32.0 (27.0, 34.4) µg/day and 24.2 (19.2, 30.8) µg/day, respectively. Endpoint serum 25(OH)D increased in fortified groups to 77.8 (14) nmol/L among Danish women and 54.7 (18) nmol/L among women of Pakistani origin (P < 0.01). At endpoint, 0% in the Danish-fortified group and 3% in the Pakistani-fortified group had 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L, compared with 23 % and 34% in their respective control groups. Conclusions: Vitamin D fortification of four different foods for 12 weeks during winter was effective in increasing serum 25(OH)D and reducing the prevalence of very low vitamin D status among women of Danish and Pakistani origin. ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier: NCT02631629.

KW - Vitamin D

KW - Food-based RCT

KW - ODIN

KW - Women of Parkistani origin

KW - Women of Danish origin

KW - Fortified foods

U2 - 10.1007/s00394-019-01941-6

DO - 10.1007/s00394-019-01941-6

M3 - Journal article

JO - European Journal of Nutrition

JF - European Journal of Nutrition

SN - 1436-6207

ER -