Vitamin D-enhanced eggs are protective of wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a randomized controlled trial of adults

Aoife Hayes, Sarah Duffy, Michael O'Grady, Jette Jakobsen, Karen Galvin, Joanna Teahan-Dillon, Joseph Kerry, Alan Kelly, John O'Doherty, Siobhan Higgins, Kelly M Seamans, Kevin D Cashman

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Abstract

Despite numerous animal studies that have illustrated the impact of additional vitamin D in the diet of hens on the resulting egg vitamin D content, the effect of the consumption of such eggs on vitamin D status of healthy individuals has not, to our knowledge, been tested. We performed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to investigate the effect of the consumption of vitamin D-enhanced eggs (produced by feeding hens at the maximum concentration of vitamin D3 or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] lawfully allowed in feed) on winter serum 25(OH)D in healthy adults. We conducted an 8-wk winter RCT in adults aged 45-70 y (n = 55) who were stratified into 3 groups and were requested to consume ≤2 eggs/wk (control group, in which status was expected to decline), 7 vitamin D3-enhanced eggs/wk, or seven 25(OH)D3-enhanced eggs/wk. Serum 25(OH)D was the primary outcome. Although there was no significant difference (P > 0.1; ANOVA) in the mean preintervention serum 25(OH)D in the 3 groups, it was ∼7-8 nmol/L lower in the control group than in the 2 groups who consumed vitamin D-enhanced eggs. With the use of an ANCOVA, in which baseline 25(OH)D was accounted for, vitamin D3-egg and 25(OH)D3-egg groups were shown to have had significantly higher (P ≤ 0.005) postintervention serum 25(OH)D than in the control group. With the use of a within-group analysis, it was shown that, although serum 25(OH)D in the control group significantly decreased over winter (mean ± SD: -6.4 ± 6.7 nmol/L; P = 0.001), there was no change in the 2 groups who consumed vitamin D-enhanced eggs (P > 0.1 for both). Weekly consumption of 7 vitamin D-enhanced eggs has an important impact on winter vitamin D status in adults.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
Volume104
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)629-637
Number of pages9
ISSN0002-9165
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Keywords

  • 25(OH)D
  • RCT
  • bioaddition
  • vitamin D deficiency
  • vitamin D–enhanced eggs

Cite this

Hayes, Aoife ; Duffy, Sarah ; O'Grady, Michael ; Jakobsen, Jette ; Galvin, Karen ; Teahan-Dillon, Joanna ; Kerry, Joseph ; Kelly, Alan ; O'Doherty, John ; Higgins, Siobhan ; Seamans, Kelly M ; Cashman, Kevin D. / Vitamin D-enhanced eggs are protective of wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a randomized controlled trial of adults. In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. 2016 ; Vol. 104, No. 3. pp. 629-637.
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title = "Vitamin D-enhanced eggs are protective of wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a randomized controlled trial of adults",
abstract = "Despite numerous animal studies that have illustrated the impact of additional vitamin D in the diet of hens on the resulting egg vitamin D content, the effect of the consumption of such eggs on vitamin D status of healthy individuals has not, to our knowledge, been tested. We performed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to investigate the effect of the consumption of vitamin D-enhanced eggs (produced by feeding hens at the maximum concentration of vitamin D3 or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] lawfully allowed in feed) on winter serum 25(OH)D in healthy adults. We conducted an 8-wk winter RCT in adults aged 45-70 y (n = 55) who were stratified into 3 groups and were requested to consume ≤2 eggs/wk (control group, in which status was expected to decline), 7 vitamin D3-enhanced eggs/wk, or seven 25(OH)D3-enhanced eggs/wk. Serum 25(OH)D was the primary outcome. Although there was no significant difference (P > 0.1; ANOVA) in the mean preintervention serum 25(OH)D in the 3 groups, it was ∼7-8 nmol/L lower in the control group than in the 2 groups who consumed vitamin D-enhanced eggs. With the use of an ANCOVA, in which baseline 25(OH)D was accounted for, vitamin D3-egg and 25(OH)D3-egg groups were shown to have had significantly higher (P ≤ 0.005) postintervention serum 25(OH)D than in the control group. With the use of a within-group analysis, it was shown that, although serum 25(OH)D in the control group significantly decreased over winter (mean ± SD: -6.4 ± 6.7 nmol/L; P = 0.001), there was no change in the 2 groups who consumed vitamin D-enhanced eggs (P > 0.1 for both). Weekly consumption of 7 vitamin D-enhanced eggs has an important impact on winter vitamin D status in adults.",
keywords = "25(OH)D, RCT, bioaddition, vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D–enhanced eggs",
author = "Aoife Hayes and Sarah Duffy and Michael O'Grady and Jette Jakobsen and Karen Galvin and Joanna Teahan-Dillon and Joseph Kerry and Alan Kelly and John O'Doherty and Siobhan Higgins and Seamans, {Kelly M} and Cashman, {Kevin D}",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.3945/ajcn.116.132530",
language = "English",
volume = "104",
pages = "629--637",
journal = "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
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Hayes, A, Duffy, S, O'Grady, M, Jakobsen, J, Galvin, K, Teahan-Dillon, J, Kerry, J, Kelly, A, O'Doherty, J, Higgins, S, Seamans, KM & Cashman, KD 2016, 'Vitamin D-enhanced eggs are protective of wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a randomized controlled trial of adults', AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 629-637. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.132530

Vitamin D-enhanced eggs are protective of wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a randomized controlled trial of adults. / Hayes, Aoife; Duffy, Sarah; O'Grady, Michael; Jakobsen, Jette; Galvin, Karen; Teahan-Dillon, Joanna; Kerry, Joseph; Kelly, Alan; O'Doherty, John; Higgins, Siobhan; Seamans, Kelly M; Cashman, Kevin D.

In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol. 104, No. 3, 2016, p. 629-637.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Vitamin D-enhanced eggs are protective of wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a randomized controlled trial of adults

AU - Hayes, Aoife

AU - Duffy, Sarah

AU - O'Grady, Michael

AU - Jakobsen, Jette

AU - Galvin, Karen

AU - Teahan-Dillon, Joanna

AU - Kerry, Joseph

AU - Kelly, Alan

AU - O'Doherty, John

AU - Higgins, Siobhan

AU - Seamans, Kelly M

AU - Cashman, Kevin D

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Despite numerous animal studies that have illustrated the impact of additional vitamin D in the diet of hens on the resulting egg vitamin D content, the effect of the consumption of such eggs on vitamin D status of healthy individuals has not, to our knowledge, been tested. We performed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to investigate the effect of the consumption of vitamin D-enhanced eggs (produced by feeding hens at the maximum concentration of vitamin D3 or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] lawfully allowed in feed) on winter serum 25(OH)D in healthy adults. We conducted an 8-wk winter RCT in adults aged 45-70 y (n = 55) who were stratified into 3 groups and were requested to consume ≤2 eggs/wk (control group, in which status was expected to decline), 7 vitamin D3-enhanced eggs/wk, or seven 25(OH)D3-enhanced eggs/wk. Serum 25(OH)D was the primary outcome. Although there was no significant difference (P > 0.1; ANOVA) in the mean preintervention serum 25(OH)D in the 3 groups, it was ∼7-8 nmol/L lower in the control group than in the 2 groups who consumed vitamin D-enhanced eggs. With the use of an ANCOVA, in which baseline 25(OH)D was accounted for, vitamin D3-egg and 25(OH)D3-egg groups were shown to have had significantly higher (P ≤ 0.005) postintervention serum 25(OH)D than in the control group. With the use of a within-group analysis, it was shown that, although serum 25(OH)D in the control group significantly decreased over winter (mean ± SD: -6.4 ± 6.7 nmol/L; P = 0.001), there was no change in the 2 groups who consumed vitamin D-enhanced eggs (P > 0.1 for both). Weekly consumption of 7 vitamin D-enhanced eggs has an important impact on winter vitamin D status in adults.

AB - Despite numerous animal studies that have illustrated the impact of additional vitamin D in the diet of hens on the resulting egg vitamin D content, the effect of the consumption of such eggs on vitamin D status of healthy individuals has not, to our knowledge, been tested. We performed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to investigate the effect of the consumption of vitamin D-enhanced eggs (produced by feeding hens at the maximum concentration of vitamin D3 or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] lawfully allowed in feed) on winter serum 25(OH)D in healthy adults. We conducted an 8-wk winter RCT in adults aged 45-70 y (n = 55) who were stratified into 3 groups and were requested to consume ≤2 eggs/wk (control group, in which status was expected to decline), 7 vitamin D3-enhanced eggs/wk, or seven 25(OH)D3-enhanced eggs/wk. Serum 25(OH)D was the primary outcome. Although there was no significant difference (P > 0.1; ANOVA) in the mean preintervention serum 25(OH)D in the 3 groups, it was ∼7-8 nmol/L lower in the control group than in the 2 groups who consumed vitamin D-enhanced eggs. With the use of an ANCOVA, in which baseline 25(OH)D was accounted for, vitamin D3-egg and 25(OH)D3-egg groups were shown to have had significantly higher (P ≤ 0.005) postintervention serum 25(OH)D than in the control group. With the use of a within-group analysis, it was shown that, although serum 25(OH)D in the control group significantly decreased over winter (mean ± SD: -6.4 ± 6.7 nmol/L; P = 0.001), there was no change in the 2 groups who consumed vitamin D-enhanced eggs (P > 0.1 for both). Weekly consumption of 7 vitamin D-enhanced eggs has an important impact on winter vitamin D status in adults.

KW - 25(OH)D

KW - RCT

KW - bioaddition

KW - vitamin D deficiency

KW - vitamin D–enhanced eggs

U2 - 10.3945/ajcn.116.132530

DO - 10.3945/ajcn.116.132530

M3 - Journal article

VL - 104

SP - 629

EP - 637

JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 3

ER -