Vector and Doppler Ultrasound Velocities Evaluated in a Flow Phantom and the Femoropopliteal Vein

Thor Bechsgaard, Kristoffer Lindskov Hansen, Andreas Hjelm Brandt, Simon Holbek, Julie Lyng Forman, Charlotte Strandberg, Lars Lönn, Niels Bækgaard, Jørgen Arendt Jensen, Michael Bachmann Nielsen

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Ultrasound is used for evaluating the veins of the lower extremities. Operator and angle dependency limit spectral Doppler ultrasound (SDUS). The aim of the study was to compare peak velocity measurements in a flow phantom and the femoropopliteal vein of 20 volunteers with the angle-independent vector velocity technique vector flow imaging (VFI) and SDUS. In the flow phantom, VFI underestimated velocity (p = 0.01), with a lower accuracy of 5.5% (p = 0.01) and with no difference in precision, that is, error factor, compared with SDUS (VFI: 1.02 vs. SDUS: 1.02, p = 0.58). In vivo, VFI estimated lower velocities (femoral: p = 0.001; popliteal: p = 0.001) with no difference in precision compared with SDUS (femoral: VFI 1.09 vs. SDUS 1.14, p = 0.37; popliteal: VFI 1.13 vs. SDUS 1.06, p = 0.09). In conclusion, the precise VFI technique can be used to characterize venous hemodynamics of the lower extremities despite its underestimation of velocities.
Original languageEnglish
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number10
Pages (from-to)2477-2487
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Femoral vein
  • Flow phantom
  • Peak velocity
  • Popliteal vein
  • Spectral Doppler
  • Ultrasound
  • Vector flow imaging


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