Using collective intelligence to identify barriers to teaching 12–19 year olds about the ocean in Europe

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article – Annual report year: 2018Researchpeer-review



  • Author: Fauville, Géraldine

    University of Gothenburg, Sweden

  • Author: McHugh, Patricia

    National University of Ireland, Ireland

  • Author: Domegan, Christine

    National University of Ireland, Ireland

  • Author: Mäkitalo, Åsa

    University of Gothenburg, Sweden

  • Author: Møller, Lene Friis

    Danish Shellfish Centre, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Øroddevej 80, 7900, Nykøbing Mors, Denmark

  • Author: Papathanassiou, Martha

    Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Greece

  • Author: Alvarez Chicote, Carla

    SUBMON, Spain

  • Author: Lincoln, Susana

    Cefas Weymouth Laboratory, United Kingdom

  • Author: Batista, Vanessa

    Ciência Viva, Portugal

  • Author: Copejans, Evy

    Flanders Marine Institute, Belgium

  • Author: Crouch, Fiona

    Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, United Kingdom

  • Author: Gotensparre, Susan

    University of Gothenburg, Sweden

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Since the degradation of the marine environment is strongly linked to human activities, having citizens who appreciate the ocean's influence on them and their influence on the ocean is important. Research has shown that citizens have a limited understanding of the ocean and it is this lack of ocean literacy that needs to change. This study maps the European landscape of barriers to teaching 12–19 year olds about the ocean, through the application of Collective Intelligence, a facilitation and problem solving methodology. The paper presents a metaanalysis of the 657 barriers to teaching about the ocean, highlighting how these barriers are interconnected and influence one another in a European Influence Map. The influence map shows 8 themes: Awareness and Perceived knowledge; Policies and Strategies; Engagement, formal education sector; the Ocean itself; Collaboration; Connections between humans and the ocean and the Blue Economy, having the greatest influence and impact on marine education. “Awareness and Perceived knowledge” in Stage 1, exerts the highest level of
overall influence in teaching 12–19 year olds about the ocean. This map and study serves as a roadmap for policy makers to implement mobilisation actions that could mitigate the barriers to teaching about the ocean. Examples of such actions include free marine education learning resources such as e-books, virtual laboratories or handson experiments. Thus, supporting educators in taking on the challenge of helping our youth realise that the ocean supports life on Earth is essential for education, the marine and human well-being
Original languageEnglish
JournalMarine Policy
Pages (from-to)85-96
Publication statusPublished - 2018
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: No match on DOI
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ID: 144813904