US East Coast synthetic aperture radar wind atlas for offshore wind energy

Tobias Ahsbahs, Galen MacLaurin, Caroline Draxl, Christopher Jackson, Frank Monaldo, Merete Badger*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

We present the first synthetic aperture radar (SAR)-based offshore wind atlas of the US East Coast from Georgia to the Canadian border. Images from Radarsat-1, Envisat, Sentinel-1A, and Sentinel-1B are processed to wind maps using the Geophysical Model Function (GMF) CMOD5.N. Extensive comparisons with 6,008 collocated buoy observations revealed that biases of the individual system range from -0.8 to 0.6 m/s. Unbiased wind retrievals are crucial for producing an accurate wind atlas and intercalibration for correcting these biases by adjusting the normalized radar cross section is applied. The intercalibrated SAR observations show biases in the range of to -0.2 to 0.0 m/s, while at the same time improving the root mean squared error from 1.67 to 1.46 m/s. These intercalibrated SAR observations are, for the first time, aggregated to create a wind atlas. Monthly averages are used to correct artefacts from seasonal biases. The SAR wind atlas is used as a reference to study wind resources derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Comparisons focus on the spatial variation of wind resources and show that model results estimate lower coastal wind speed gradients than those from SAR. At sites designated for offshore wind development by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, mean wind speeds typically vary between 0.3 and 0.5 m/s for SAR and less than 0.2 m/s for the WRF model within each site. Findings indicate that wind speed gradients and variation might be underestimated in mesoscale model outputs along US East Coast.
Original languageEnglish
JournalWind Energy Science
Volume5
Pages (from-to)1191-1210
Number of pages20
ISSN2366-7443
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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