Uptake, removal, accumulation, and phytotoxicity of 4-chlorophenol in willow trees

Ahmed Süheyl Ucisik, Stefan Trapp

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


    4-chlorophenol (4-CP) is a well-known hazardous chlorinated compound and a precursor for the synthesis of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate. The relation between uptake, accumulation, toxicity, and removal of 4-CP in willow trees (Salix viminalis) was determined. In addition, the feasibility of implementing phytoremediation as a treatment method for 4-CP contamination was investigated. Willows were exposed to 4-CP levels ≤79.9 mg/L in hydroponic solution. The transpiration of the trees was used to determine toxic effects. Almost no inhibition of transpiration was detected at concentrations ≥15 mg/L. For concentrations ≥37.3 mg/L, transpiration decreased to ≤50%, and the trees wilted. Trees exposed to 79.9 mg/L wilted and eventually died. For concentrations of 79.9 mg/L, a significantly higher amount of 4-CP remained at the end of experiments in the test system compared with the amount remaining at all other concentrations. The loss of chemical from the system in experiments with trees was high, ≤99.5%. In treeless experiments, the mass loss of 4-CP was only 6% to 10%. The results indicated that degradation in the root zone is the main reason for the removal of 4-CP from the media. Phytoremediation of 4-CP in willow trees seems to be a remediation option, especially at concentrations
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalArchives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
    Issue number4
    Pages (from-to)619-627
    Publication statusPublished - 2008


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