The role played by quantum interference in the laser phase modulation coherent control of photofragment distributions in the weak-field regime is investigated in detail in this work. The specific application involves realistic wave packet calculations of the transient vibrational populations of the Br2(B,vf) fragment produced upon predissociation of the Ne-Br2(B) complex, which is excited to a superposition of overlapping resonance states using different fixed bandwidth pulses where the linear chirps are varied. The postpulse transient phase modulation effects observed on fragment populations for a long time window are explained in terms of the mechanism of interference between overlapping resonances. A detailed description of how the interference mechanism affects the magnitude and the time window of the phase control effects is also provided. In the light of the results, the conditions to maximize phase modulation control on fragment distributions are discussed.