Universal Synthetic Aperture Sequence for Anatomic, Functional and Super Resolution Imaging

Jørgen Arendt Jensen, Borislav Gueorguiev Tomov, Lars Emil Haslund, Nathalie Sarup Panduro, Charlotte Mehlin Sørensen

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Synthetic Aperture (SA) can be used for both anatomic and functional imaging, where tissue motion and blood velocity are revealed. Often, sequences optimized for anatomic B-mode imaging are different from functional sequences, as the best distribution and number of emissions are different. B-mode sequences demand many emissions for a high contrast, whereas flow sequences demand short sequences for high correlations yielding accurate velocity estimates. This paper hypothesizes that a single, universal sequence can be developed for linear array SA imaging. This sequence yields high quality linear and non-linear B-mode images as well as accurate motion and flow estimates for high and low blood velocities and super resolution images. Interleaved sequences with positive and negative pulse emissions for the same spherical virtual source were used to enable flow estimation for high velocities and make continuous long acquisitions for low velocity estimation. An optimized pulse inversion (PI) sequence with 2×12 virtual sources was implemented for four different linear array probes connected to either a Verasonics Vantage 256 scanner or the SARUS experimental scanner. The virtual sources were evenly distributed over the whole aperture and permuted in emission order for making flow estimation possible using 4, 8, or 12 virtual sources. The frame rate was 208 Hz for fully independent images for a pulse repetition frequency of 5 kHz, and recursive imaging yielded 5,000 images per second. Data were acquired from a phantom mimicking the carotid artery with pulsating flow and the kidney of a Sprague-Dawley rat. Examples include anatomic high contrast B-mode, non-linear B-mode, tissue motion, power Doppler, color flow mapping, vector velocity imaging and super resolution imaging derived from the same data set and demonstrates that all imaging modes can be shown retrospectively and quantitative data derived from it.
Original languageEnglish
Article number10138348
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)708-720
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Imaging
  • Apertures
  • Superresolution
  • Ultrasonic imaging
  • Optimization
  • Image quality
  • Probes


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