Understanding the structural changes in lithiated graphite through high-resolution operando powder X-ray diffraction

Jette K. Mathiesen, Rune E. Johnsen, Ane S. Blennow, Poul Norby*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

To develop more efficient and safer batteries, a deeper understanding of lithium ion intercalation and de-intercalation dynamics upon operation in lithium-ion batteries is of great importance. We have performed operando high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies of the intercalation and de-intercalation process in a graphite electrode material using custom-made capillary-based lithium-ion battery cells. Using high-resolution PXRD, it was possible to resolve the diffraction peaks from a number of lithiated graphite phases occurring during intercalation/de-intercalation of lithium and obtain information about the transformation processes, both related to the staging process and the in-plane transformation. In the staging related to the intercalation of lithium, two-phase and solid-solution behavior is identified. Similar phase behavior is observed when examining the in-plane parameters. The mechanism of intercalation is proposed to involve charge transfer between the lithium ion and the π orbitals of the graphene layer. Broadening of the hk0 peaks may be related to non-uniform reduction of the graphene layers depending on the staging number and the graphene layer neighboring environment.
Original languageEnglish
JournalCarbon
Volume153
Pages (from-to)347-354
ISSN0008-6223
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Cite this

@article{8c86cebcb40941eb819cba352b928301,
title = "Understanding the structural changes in lithiated graphite through high-resolution operando powder X-ray diffraction",
abstract = "To develop more efficient and safer batteries, a deeper understanding of lithium ion intercalation and de-intercalation dynamics upon operation in lithium-ion batteries is of great importance. We have performed operando high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies of the intercalation and de-intercalation process in a graphite electrode material using custom-made capillary-based lithium-ion battery cells. Using high-resolution PXRD, it was possible to resolve the diffraction peaks from a number of lithiated graphite phases occurring during intercalation/de-intercalation of lithium and obtain information about the transformation processes, both related to the staging process and the in-plane transformation. In the staging related to the intercalation of lithium, two-phase and solid-solution behavior is identified. Similar phase behavior is observed when examining the in-plane parameters. The mechanism of intercalation is proposed to involve charge transfer between the lithium ion and the π orbitals of the graphene layer. Broadening of the hk0 peaks may be related to non-uniform reduction of the graphene layers depending on the staging number and the graphene layer neighboring environment.",
author = "Mathiesen, {Jette K.} and Johnsen, {Rune E.} and Blennow, {Ane S.} and Poul Norby",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1016/j.carbon.2019.06.103",
language = "English",
volume = "153",
pages = "347--354",
journal = "Carbon",
issn = "0008-6223",
publisher = "Pergamon Press",

}

Understanding the structural changes in lithiated graphite through high-resolution operando powder X-ray diffraction. / Mathiesen, Jette K.; Johnsen, Rune E.; Blennow, Ane S.; Norby, Poul.

In: Carbon, Vol. 153, 2019, p. 347-354.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Understanding the structural changes in lithiated graphite through high-resolution operando powder X-ray diffraction

AU - Mathiesen, Jette K.

AU - Johnsen, Rune E.

AU - Blennow, Ane S.

AU - Norby, Poul

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - To develop more efficient and safer batteries, a deeper understanding of lithium ion intercalation and de-intercalation dynamics upon operation in lithium-ion batteries is of great importance. We have performed operando high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies of the intercalation and de-intercalation process in a graphite electrode material using custom-made capillary-based lithium-ion battery cells. Using high-resolution PXRD, it was possible to resolve the diffraction peaks from a number of lithiated graphite phases occurring during intercalation/de-intercalation of lithium and obtain information about the transformation processes, both related to the staging process and the in-plane transformation. In the staging related to the intercalation of lithium, two-phase and solid-solution behavior is identified. Similar phase behavior is observed when examining the in-plane parameters. The mechanism of intercalation is proposed to involve charge transfer between the lithium ion and the π orbitals of the graphene layer. Broadening of the hk0 peaks may be related to non-uniform reduction of the graphene layers depending on the staging number and the graphene layer neighboring environment.

AB - To develop more efficient and safer batteries, a deeper understanding of lithium ion intercalation and de-intercalation dynamics upon operation in lithium-ion batteries is of great importance. We have performed operando high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies of the intercalation and de-intercalation process in a graphite electrode material using custom-made capillary-based lithium-ion battery cells. Using high-resolution PXRD, it was possible to resolve the diffraction peaks from a number of lithiated graphite phases occurring during intercalation/de-intercalation of lithium and obtain information about the transformation processes, both related to the staging process and the in-plane transformation. In the staging related to the intercalation of lithium, two-phase and solid-solution behavior is identified. Similar phase behavior is observed when examining the in-plane parameters. The mechanism of intercalation is proposed to involve charge transfer between the lithium ion and the π orbitals of the graphene layer. Broadening of the hk0 peaks may be related to non-uniform reduction of the graphene layers depending on the staging number and the graphene layer neighboring environment.

U2 - 10.1016/j.carbon.2019.06.103

DO - 10.1016/j.carbon.2019.06.103

M3 - Journal article

VL - 153

SP - 347

EP - 354

JO - Carbon

JF - Carbon

SN - 0008-6223

ER -