Uncovering the local inelastic interactions during manufacture of ductile cast iron: How the substructure of the graphite particles can induce residual stress concentrations in the matrix

Tito Andriollo*, Kristina Hellström, Mads Rostgaard Sonne, Jesper Thorborg, Niels Skat Tiedje, Jesper Henri Hattel

*Corresponding author for this work

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Recent X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements have revealed that plastic deformation and a residual elastic strain field can be present around the graphite particles in ductile cast iron after manufacturing, probably due to some local mismatch in thermal contraction. However, as only one component of the elastic strain tensor could be obtained from the XRD data, the shape and magnitude of the associated residual stress field have remained unknown. To compensate for this and to provide theoretical insight into this unexplored topic, a combined experimental-numerical approach is presented in this paper. First, a ma terial equivalent to the ductile cast iron matrix is manufactured and subjected to dilato- metric and high-temperature tensile tests. Subsequently, a two-scale hierarchical top-down model is devised, calibrated on the basis of the collected data and used to simulate the interaction between the graphite particles and the matrix during manufacturing of the industrial part considered in the XRD study. The model indicates that, besides the vis- coplastic deformation of the matrix, the effect of the inelastic deformation of the graphite has to be considered to explain the magnitude of the XRD strain. Moreover, the model shows that the large elastic strain perturbations recorded with XRD close to the graphite–matrix interface are not artifacts due to e.g. sharp gradients in chemical composition, but correspond to residual stress concentrations induced by the conical sectors forming the in- ternal structure of the graphite particles. In contrast to common belief, these results thus suggest that ductile cast iron parts cannot be considered, in general, as stress-free at the microstructural scale.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids
Pages (from-to)333–357
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Thermomechanical processes A
  • Residual stress B
  • Inhomogeneous material B
  • Elastic–viscoplastic material B
  • Cast iron
  • Graphite

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