Ultrasonic 3-D Vector Flow Method for Quantitative In Vivo Peak Velocity and Flow Rate Estimation

Simon Holbek, Caroline Ewertsen, Hamed Bouzari, Michael Johannes Pihl, Kristoffer Lindskov Hansen, Matthias Bo Stuart, Carsten Thomsen, Michael Bachmann Nielsen, Jørgen Arendt Jensen

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Abstract

Current clinical ultrasound (US) systems are limited to show blood flow movement in either 1-D or 2-D. In this paper, a method for estimating 3-D vector velocities in a plane using the transverse oscillation method, a 32×32 element matrix array, and the experimental US scanner SARUS is presented. The aim of this paper is to estimate precise flow rates and peak velocities derived from 3-D vector flow estimates. The emission sequence provides 3-D vector flow estimates at up to 1.145 frames/s in a plane, and was used to estimate 3-D vector flow in a cross-sectional image plane. The method is validated in two phantom studies, where flow rates are measured in a flow-rig, providing a constant parabolic flow, and in a straight-vessel phantom ( ∅=8 mm) connected to a flow pump capable of generating time varying waveforms. Flow rates are estimated to be 82.1 ± 2.8 L/min in the flow-rig compared with the expected 79.8 L/min, and to 2.68 ± 0.04 mL/stroke in the pulsating environment compared with the expected 2.57 ± 0.08 mL/stroke. Flow rates estimated in the common carotid artery of a healthy volunteer are compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured flow rates using a 1-D through-plane velocity sequence. Mean flow rates were 333 ± 31 mL/min for the presented method and 346 ± 2 mL/min for the MRI measurements.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Volume64
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)544-554
ISSN0885-3010
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Transducers
  • Estimation
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Apertures
  • Blood
  • Ultrasonic imaging
  • transverse oscillation
  • Blood flow
  • 3-D vector flow imaging
  • medical ultrasound
  • MRI

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