these efforts .
The hybrid laser consists of a dielectric reflector, a III-V semiconductor active material, and a high-index-contrast grating (HCG) reflector formed in the silicon layer of a silicon-oninsulator (SOI) wafer. ‘Hybrid’ indicates that a III-V active material is wafer-bonded to a silicon SOI wafer. In the hybrid laser, light is vertically amplified between the dielectric and the HCG reflectors, while the light output is laterally emitted to a normal Si ridge waveguide that is connected to the HCG reflector. The HCG works as a vertical mirror as well as a vertical-to-lateral coupler. Very small field penetration into the HCG allows for 3-4 times smaller modal volume than typical vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). This leads to high direct modulation speed. Details on device operating mechanism will be
explained in the lecture.
Recently, a nano light-emitting diode (LED) with energy/bit < 1fJ/bit  and a nano laser diode with a buried heterostructure (BH) active material  have been recently reported in the literature. Additionally, device physics, engineering issue, and error-free light detection issue in quantum limit will be discussed in relation to these two structures.
|Title of host publication||NANO KOREA 2013|
|Number of pages||1|
|Publication status||Published - 2013|
|Event||11th International Nanotech Symposium & Nano-Convergence Expo (NANO KOREA 2013) - Seoul, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of|
Duration: 10 Jul 2013 → 12 Jul 2013
|Conference||11th International Nanotech Symposium & Nano-Convergence Expo (NANO KOREA 2013)|
|Country||Korea, Democratic People's Republic of|
|Period||10/07/2013 → 12/07/2013|