Silicon surfaces have been cleaned and bonded in ultrahigh vacuum, at a pressure in the 10(-10) Torr range. The bonded interfaces show extremely low contamination levels as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Nevertheless, a potential barrier could be detected at the interface by spreading resistance and current vs. temperature measurements. This suggests that the barrier is caused by inevitable dislocation networks due to wafer misorientation, as well as residual oxygen at the interface.
Bibliographical noteCopyright The Electrochemical Society, Inc. . All rights reserved. Except as provided under U.S. copyright law, this work may not be reproduced, resold, distributed, or modified without the express permission of The Electrochemical Society (ECS).
Hermansson, K., Grey, F., Bengtsson, S., & Södervall, U. (1998). Ultraclean Si/Si interface formation by surface preparation and direct bonding in ultrahigh vacuum. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 145(5), 1645-1649. https://doi.org/10.1149/1.1838530