The study aims to clarify the current controversy related to conflicting reports on whether presence of Cr(VI) in rice is possible or not. For this purpose, a method was employed for the single run speciation analysis of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in rice samples using species-specific isotope dilution (SS-ID) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled mass-spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and selective single run species complexation/derivatisation. The quantification limits (LOQs) were 0.014 μg kg-1 for Cr(III) and 0.047 μg kg-1 for Cr(VI), while the detection limits (LODs) were 0.004 and 0.014 μg kg-1 for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively. A total of 10 rice samples of different origin and colour (depending on the type of industrial processing) were analysed in this study. The content of Cr(VI) was below the limit of quantification in all of the rice samples analysed, while the Cr(III) levels ranged between 0.59 (whole grain rice) up to 104 µg kg-1 (brown rice). All samples were also analysed for their total Cr (Crtotal) content by ICP-MS solely and the results were in all cases comparable with the Cr(III) levels determined in the same samples. To assess the stability of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in rice, one sample was spiked with Cr(III) and Cr(VI) (individually) at different levels (5.0, 10, 15 and 20 μg kg-1), held for 2 h, and then analysed by SS-ID HPLC-ICP-MS. The results showed a complete reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), while Cr(III) remained stable at all spiking levels. These findings support the general statement from the European Food Safety Authority related to the complete absence of Cr(VI) in foods and confirms that Cr in rice is found solely as Cr(III) species.
|Journal||Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A - Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment|
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 2021|