Velocity-component variances can be directly computed from lidar measurements using information of the second-order statistics within the lidar probe volume. Specifically, by using the Doppler radial velocity spectrum, one can estimate the unfiltered radial velocity variance. This information is not always available in current lidar campaigns. The velocity-component variances can also be indirectly computed from the reconstructed velocities but they are biased compared to those computed from, e.g., sonic anemometers. Here we show, for the first time, how to estimate such biases for a multi-lidar system and we demonstrate, also for the first time, their dependence on the turbulence characteristics and the lidar beam scanning geometry relative to the wind direction. For a dual-Doppler lidar system, we also show that the indirect method has an advantage compared to the direct one for commonly-used scanning configurations due to the singularity of the system. We demonstrate that our estimates of the radial velocity and velocity-component biases are accurate by analysis of measurements performed over a flat site using a dual-Doppler lidar system, where both lidars stared over a volume close to a sonic anemometer at a height of 100 m. We also show that mapping these biases over a spatial domain helps to plan meteorological campaigns, where multi-lidar systems can potentially be used. Particularly, such maps help the multi-point mapping of wind resources and conditions, which improve the tools needed for wind turbine siting.
- Atmospheric flow
- Scanning lidars