Tritium and 14C are two most important radionuclides released from nuclear facilities to the environment, and 14C contributes dominant radiation dose to the population around nuclear power plants. This paper presents an overview of the production, pathway, species and levels of tritium and 14C in nuclear facilities, mainly nuclear power plants. The methods for sampling and collection of different species of tritium and 14C in the discharge gas from the stack in the nuclear facilities, atmosphere of the nuclear facilities and environment are presented, and the features of different methods are reviewed. The on-line monitoring methods of gaseous tritium and 14C in air and laboratory measurement methods for sensitive determination of tritium and 14C in collected samples, water and environmental solid samples are also discussed in detailed. Meanwhile, the challenges in the determination and speciation analysis of tritium and 14C are also highlighted.
|Journal||Journal of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(jnfcwt)|
|Publication status||Published - 2018|
- Source term
- Speciation analysis