Trends in LST over the peninsular Spain as derived from the AVHRR imagery data

Makki Khorchani*, Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, Cesar Azorin-Molina, Monica Garcia, Natalia Martin-Hernandez, Marina Peña-Gallardo, Ahmed El Kenawy, Fernando Domínguez-Castro

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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This study analyzes the spatio-temporal variability and trends of land surface temperature (LST) over peninsular Spain, considering all the available historical satellite imagery data from the NOAA-AVHRR product from July 1981 to June 2015 and explores whether changes in LST are related to the observed changes in air temperature, solar radiation and land cover. We found that LST showed a significant increase between 1982 and 2014, with an average increase on the order of 0.71 °C decade−1, being stronger during summertime (1.53 °C decade−1). The results also indicate a strong spatial coherence between LST and NDVI changes. The areas that experienced an increase in the LST were spatially consistent with those areas with no changes or even a dominant decrease in vegetation coverage. In addition, the strong increase of LST is coherent with observations of the recent radiative forcing affecting Spain, particularly during summertime. The confidence of the obtained LST trends during summer is also reinforced by the spatial differences recorded in trends, in addition to the differences found between land cover types. Specifically, the magnitude of this increase was much higher in the dryland non-permanent agricultural areas, which are usually harvested during summer, when soil is dominantly nude. In contrast, in well-developed forests, the magnitude of LST was much lower. Our results on the observed LST trends and their spatial patterns can contribute to better understanding of the recent eco-hydrological processes in peninsular Spain.
Original languageEnglish
JournalGlobal and Planetary Change
Pages (from-to)75-93
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Atmospheric Properties
  • Satellites
  • Mechanical Variables Measurements
  • Materials Science
  • Aridity
  • Global warming
  • Land surface temperature
  • NDVI
  • Remote sensing
  • Trends
  • Atmospheric radiation
  • Atmospheric temperature
  • Surface measurement
  • Surface properties
  • Hydrological process
  • Satellite imagery data
  • Spatial differences
  • Spatiotemporal variability
  • Satellite imagery

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