Transport energy embodied in consumer goods: a hybrid life-cycle analysis

Jesper Munksgaard, Manfred Lenzen, Thomas C. Jensen, Lise-Lotte Pade

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


This paper describes an analysis of the transport-related energy embodied in goods consumed by households. Our approach combines bottom-up with top-down modelling in a hybrid life-cycle analysis. The bottom-up part is a process analysis of international transport, examining foreign trade statistics, transportation modes, transport distances, and energy efficiencies. The top-down part is an input-output analysis identifying transport energy use in upstream production layers. To demonstrate the application of the model we carry out a three-step empirical analysis of goods consumed in Denmark in 1995, starting with highly aggregated commodity groups, and ending with “bread”.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnergy & Environment
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)283-301
Publication statusPublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Hybrid life-cycle analysis
  • Input-output modelling
  • Transport energy
  • Food


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