In the future smart grids, it is important for the prosumers to manage the uncertainties from the distributed renewable energy sources (RES) such as PV generation. As a type of distributed energy resources (DERs), electrical vehicles (EVs) are regarded as a promising solution of the problem. In this paper, a transactive real-time EV charging management scheme is proposed for the building energy management system (BEMS) of commercial buildings with PV on-site generation and EV charging services. Instead of direct EV charging control, the proposed EV charging management scheme applies a transactive energy concept based approach to address the real-time EV charging management. With the proposed scheme, the BEMS can schedule its net electricity exchange with the external grid under the uncertainties of PV generation and EV parking and maximize its profit in the real-time operation. Meanwhile, the EV owners need not provide the BEMS with any further private information (such as future driving plans) but only their real-time charging requirements and preference setting of the response to the BEMS’s pricing signal in the proposed scheme. As such, the BEMS as a charging service provider only requires the minimal necessary information from the EV owners. The EV owners’ charging requirements, preference setting of the response curves and their required reimbursements for the response are respected by the real-time charging management and their contributions to the demand response are reimbursed by the BEMS. Case studies with real world driving data from the Danish National Travel Survey were carried out to verify the proposed framework.
- Building energy management system (BEMS)
- Electric vehicles (EVs)
- Photovoltaic (PV)
- Transactive energy