Due to the increasing utilization of electric vehicles (EVs), future power grids may face challenges of system peak load that are usually solved by means of grid reinforcements. By providing flexibility, acquired from flexible consumers, such as EVs, the need for grid reinforcements can be avoided or postponed. Therefore, in order to solve the peak load problem, this paper focuses on the provision of flexibility services through the local market. It presents a framework for the participation of aggregated electric vehicles in the local market, considering the operating constraints of the grid. In the proposed framework, aggregators interact in a transactive, market-based manner, with a transactive energy (TE) operator and distribution system operator (DSO) to resolve operational problems. For the market-based operation, a bidding model is proposed and formulated as an optimization problem that minimizes the total cost of DSO for acquiring flexibility services from EVs. The proposed model uses EVs as flexible loads to illustrate the method, and it is tested with case-studies conducted on two IEEE test systems.
- Demand flexibility
- Distributed Energy Resources,
- Electric vehicles
- Transactive energy