Topology optimization of wind farm layouts

Nicolò Pollini*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

90 Downloads (Pure)


A novel approach for the solution of the wind farm layout optimization problem is presented. The annual energy production is maximized with constraints on the minimum and maximum number of wind turbines placed, and on the minimum spacing between the wind turbines. The proposed approach relies on a density-based topology optimization method, where continuous density variables varying between zero and one are assigned to each potential wind turbine location. A wind turbine exists if its associated variable equals one, otherwise it does not exist if the associated variable is zero. Intermediate values of the density variables are penalized with interpolation schemes traditionally used in the context of multi-material structural topology optimization. The penalized intermediate values of the design variables become uneconomical and the optimization algorithm is implicitly pushed towards a preference of crisp 0–1 final values. The optimization problem is solved with a gradient-based algorithm based on first-order information. Because of the proposed problem formulation, the functions involved are formulated explicitly in terms of the design variables and their analytical gradients can be calculated directly. The numerical results highlight the capability of the proposed approach in finding optimized wind farm layouts with small computational resources and time.
Original languageEnglish
JournalRenewable Energy
Pages (from-to)1015-1027
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Topology optimization
  • Wind farm
  • Layout optimization
  • Interpolation scheme


Dive into the research topics of 'Topology optimization of wind farm layouts'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this