Tolerance analysis in manufacturing using process capability ratio with measurement uncertainty

Rasoul Mahshid*, Zahra Mansourvar, Hans Nørgaard Hansen

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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    Tolerance analysis provides valuable information regarding performance of manufacturing process. It allows determining the maximum possible variation of a quality feature in production. Previous researches have focused on application of tolerance analysis to the design of mechanical assemblies. In this paper, a new statistical analysis was applied to manufactured products to assess achieved tolerances when the process is known while using capability ratio and expanded uncertainty. The analysis has benefits for process planning, determining actual precision limits, process optimization, troubleshoot malfunctioning existing part. The capability measure is based on a number of measurements performed on part’s quality variable. Since the ratio relies on measurements, elimination of any possible error has notable negative impact on results. Therefore, measurement uncertainty was used in combination with process capability ratio to determine conformity and nonconformity to requirements for quality characteristic of a population of workpieces. A case study of sheared billets was described where proposed technique was implemented. The use of ratio was addressed to draw conclusions about non-conforming billet’s weight expressed in parts per million (ppm) associated with measurement uncertainty and tolerance limits. The results showed significant reduction of conformance zone due to the measurement uncertainty.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalPrecision Engineering
    Pages (from-to)201-210
    Publication statusPublished - 2018


    • Quality control
    • Tolerance
    • Expanded uncertainty
    • Capability ratio
    • Statistical analysis
    • Manufacturing
    • Sheared billet
    • Cold forming


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