Time patterns for process-aware information systems

Andreas Lanz, Barbara Weber, Manfred Reichert

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Companies increasingly adopt process-aware information systems (PAISs) due to their promising perspectives for improved business process support. Although the proper handling of temporal constraints is crucial in this context, existing PAISs vary significantly regarding their support of the temporal perspective of a business process. To make PAISs comparable with respect to their ability to deal with temporal constraints and to facilitate the development of a time-aware PAIS, this paper suggests 10 time patterns. All patterns are based on empirical evidence we gathered in case studies. Additionally, they are validated through a systematic literature review. Based on the time patterns, we then provide an in-depth evaluation of selected PAISs and academic approaches. Altogether, the 10 time patterns will not only facilitate the selection of technologies for realizing time- and process-aware information systems but can also be used as reference for implementing time support in PAISs.
Original languageEnglish
JournalRequirements Engineering
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)113-141
Number of pages29
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Process-aware information system
  • Workflow patterns
  • Time patterns
  • Temporal perspective

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