Three Phase Power Imbalance Decomposition into Systematic Imbalance and Random Imbalance

Wangwei Kong, Kang Ma, Qiuwei Wu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


Uneven load allocations and random load behaviors are two major causes for three-phase power imbalance. The former mainly cause systematic imbalance, which can be addressed by low-cost phase swapping; the latter contribute to random imbalance, which requires relatively costly demand-side managements. To reveal the maximum potential of phase swapping and the minimum need for demand-side managements, this paper first proposes a novel a priori judgment to classify any set of three-phase power series into one of four scenarios, depending on whether there is a definite maximum phase, a definite minimum phase, or both. Then, this paper proposes a new method to decompose three-phase power series into a systematic imbalance component and a random imbalance component as the closed-form solutions of quadratic optimization models that minimize random imbalance. A degree of power imbalance is calculated based on the systematic imbalance component to guide phase swapping. Case studies demonstrate that 72.8% of 782 low voltage substations have systematic imbalance components. The degree of power imbalance results reveal the maximum need for phase swapping and the random imbalance components reveal the minimum need for demand side management, if the three phases are to be fully rebalanced.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of 2018 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting
Number of pages1
Publication date2018
ISBN (Print)9781538677032
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Event2018 IEEE PES General Meeting - Oregon Convention Center, Portland, United States
Duration: 5 Aug 20189 Aug 2018


Conference2018 IEEE PES General Meeting
LocationOregon Convention Center
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Systematics
  • Electrical engineering
  • Demand-side management
  • Resource management
  • Closed-form solutions
  • Optimization
  • Low voltage


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