Three-Dimensional Bioelectrodes Utilizing Graphene Based Bioink

Rebecka Maria Larsen Werchmeister, Jing Tang, Xinxin Xiao, Ulla Wollenberger, Hans Aage Hjuler, Jens Ulstrup, Jingdong Zhang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Enzyme immobilization using nanomaterials offers new approaches to enhanced bioelectrochemical performance and is essential for the preparation of bioelectrodes with high reproducibility and low cost. In this report, we describe the development of new three-dimensional (3D) bioelectrodes by immobilizing a “bioink” of glucose oxidase (GOD) in a matrix of reduced graphene oxides (RGOs), polyethylenimine (PEI), and ferrocene carboxylic acid (FcCOOH) on carbon paper (CP). CP with 3D interwoven carbon fibers serves as a solid porous and electronically conducting skeleton, providing large surface areas and space for loading the bioink and diffusion of substrate molecules, respectively. RGO enhances contact between the GOD-matrix and CP, maintaining high conductivity. The composition of the bioink has been systematically optimized. The GOD bioelectrodes show linearly increasing electrocatalytic oxidation current toward glucose concentration up to 48 mM. A hybrid enzymatic biofuel cell equipped with the GOD bioelectrode as a bioanode and a platinum cathode furthermore registers a maximum power density of 5.1 μW cm−2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.40 V at 25°C. The new method reported of preparing a bioelectrode by drop-casting the bioink onto the substrate electrode is facile and versatile, with the potential of application also for other enzymatic bioelectrodes.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of The Electrochemical Society
Issue number16
Pages (from-to)G170-G177
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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