Thermodynamic assessment of (semi-)volatile hydrophobic organic chemicals in WWTP sludge – combining Solid Phase Microextraction with non-target GC/MS

Karina Knudsmark Sjøholm*, Matias Flyckt-Nielsen, Thomas D. Bucheli, Philipp Mayer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

43 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Applying WWTP sludge on arable soil has clear benefits from a resource recycling point of view but can potentially also lead to contamination of soil, agricultural products and the environment. The sludge contains a complex mixture of particularly hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that sorb to the organic matter. Equilibrium sampling was recently applied to the measurement of chemical activities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in secondary and digested sludge, and clear activity increases due to the anaerobic digestion treatment were observed. In the present study we extend this work to a large number of (semi-)volatile HOCs by combining automated headspace solid phase microextraction with non-targeted gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Chemical activity ratios were determined between sludge from the different stages of a WWTP and after co-composting with garden waste and sorbent amendment with activated carbon (AC) and biochar (BC). Generally, chemical activities increased from primary, to secondary, to digested sludge and the level in the dewatered sludge was not significantly different from the level in the digested sludge. Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) behaved differently as the level was similar until the dewatering step, where it increased 4-fold. The results confirmed the earlier observation that anaerobic digestion increased chemical activity, now for a broader range of chemicals, and showed that co-composting was effective in reducing chemical activities of most of the tested (semi-)volatile organic chemicals. Of the studied compounds, activities of D5 and a musk fragrance were reduced the least by co-composting.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Environmental Monitoring
Issue number20
Pages (from-to)1728-1735
ISSN1464-0325
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Cite this

@article{37d07efd874f498497508432c795d0d7,
title = "Thermodynamic assessment of (semi-)volatile hydrophobic organic chemicals in WWTP sludge – combining Solid Phase Microextraction with non-target GC/MS",
abstract = "Applying WWTP sludge on arable soil has clear benefits from a resource recycling point of view but can potentially also lead to contamination of soil, agricultural products and the environment. The sludge contains a complex mixture of particularly hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that sorb to the organic matter. Equilibrium sampling was recently applied to the measurement of chemical activities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in secondary and digested sludge, and clear activity increases due to the anaerobic digestion treatment were observed. In the present study we extend this work to a large number of (semi-)volatile HOCs by combining automated headspace solid phase microextraction with non-targeted gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Chemical activity ratios were determined between sludge from the different stages of a WWTP and after co-composting with garden waste and sorbent amendment with activated carbon (AC) and biochar (BC). Generally, chemical activities increased from primary, to secondary, to digested sludge and the level in the dewatered sludge was not significantly different from the level in the digested sludge. Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) behaved differently as the level was similar until the dewatering step, where it increased 4-fold. The results confirmed the earlier observation that anaerobic digestion increased chemical activity, now for a broader range of chemicals, and showed that co-composting was effective in reducing chemical activities of most of the tested (semi-)volatile organic chemicals. Of the studied compounds, activities of D5 and a musk fragrance were reduced the least by co-composting.",
author = "Sj{\o}holm, {Karina Knudsmark} and Matias Flyckt-Nielsen and Bucheli, {Thomas D.} and Philipp Mayer",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1039/C8EM00407B",
language = "English",
pages = "1728--1735",
journal = "Journal of Environmental Monitoring",
issn = "1464-0325",
publisher = "Royal Society of Chemistry",
number = "20",

}

Thermodynamic assessment of (semi-)volatile hydrophobic organic chemicals in WWTP sludge – combining Solid Phase Microextraction with non-target GC/MS. / Sjøholm, Karina Knudsmark; Flyckt-Nielsen, Matias; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Mayer, Philipp.

In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, No. 20, 2018, p. 1728-1735.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Thermodynamic assessment of (semi-)volatile hydrophobic organic chemicals in WWTP sludge – combining Solid Phase Microextraction with non-target GC/MS

AU - Sjøholm, Karina Knudsmark

AU - Flyckt-Nielsen, Matias

AU - Bucheli, Thomas D.

AU - Mayer, Philipp

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Applying WWTP sludge on arable soil has clear benefits from a resource recycling point of view but can potentially also lead to contamination of soil, agricultural products and the environment. The sludge contains a complex mixture of particularly hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that sorb to the organic matter. Equilibrium sampling was recently applied to the measurement of chemical activities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in secondary and digested sludge, and clear activity increases due to the anaerobic digestion treatment were observed. In the present study we extend this work to a large number of (semi-)volatile HOCs by combining automated headspace solid phase microextraction with non-targeted gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Chemical activity ratios were determined between sludge from the different stages of a WWTP and after co-composting with garden waste and sorbent amendment with activated carbon (AC) and biochar (BC). Generally, chemical activities increased from primary, to secondary, to digested sludge and the level in the dewatered sludge was not significantly different from the level in the digested sludge. Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) behaved differently as the level was similar until the dewatering step, where it increased 4-fold. The results confirmed the earlier observation that anaerobic digestion increased chemical activity, now for a broader range of chemicals, and showed that co-composting was effective in reducing chemical activities of most of the tested (semi-)volatile organic chemicals. Of the studied compounds, activities of D5 and a musk fragrance were reduced the least by co-composting.

AB - Applying WWTP sludge on arable soil has clear benefits from a resource recycling point of view but can potentially also lead to contamination of soil, agricultural products and the environment. The sludge contains a complex mixture of particularly hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that sorb to the organic matter. Equilibrium sampling was recently applied to the measurement of chemical activities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in secondary and digested sludge, and clear activity increases due to the anaerobic digestion treatment were observed. In the present study we extend this work to a large number of (semi-)volatile HOCs by combining automated headspace solid phase microextraction with non-targeted gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Chemical activity ratios were determined between sludge from the different stages of a WWTP and after co-composting with garden waste and sorbent amendment with activated carbon (AC) and biochar (BC). Generally, chemical activities increased from primary, to secondary, to digested sludge and the level in the dewatered sludge was not significantly different from the level in the digested sludge. Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) behaved differently as the level was similar until the dewatering step, where it increased 4-fold. The results confirmed the earlier observation that anaerobic digestion increased chemical activity, now for a broader range of chemicals, and showed that co-composting was effective in reducing chemical activities of most of the tested (semi-)volatile organic chemicals. Of the studied compounds, activities of D5 and a musk fragrance were reduced the least by co-composting.

U2 - 10.1039/C8EM00407B

DO - 10.1039/C8EM00407B

M3 - Journal article

SP - 1728

EP - 1735

JO - Journal of Environmental Monitoring

JF - Journal of Environmental Monitoring

SN - 1464-0325

IS - 20

ER -