Using a double axis crystal spectrometer, we have determined the structure factor S (kappa) of the liquids N2 and O2 up to a maximum wavevector kappam=11 Å−1. We derive the parameters characterizing the first nearest neighbor shell and find that the intramolecular bond length is well determined, whereas the width and the volume of the shell is derived with rather large uncertainties. We also demonstrate how our data analysis program may be used to give necessary limits for kappam, dependent upon which parameters are to be determined. Finally, we deduce the angular correlations which give a result consistent with the dominant quadrupolar and dipolar interactions in N2 and O2, respectively. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics.