Thermal modelling of the multi-stage heating system with variable boundary conditions in the wafer based precision glass moulding process

Ali Sarhadi, Jesper Henri Hattel, Hans Nørgaard Hansen, Cem Celal Tutum, Lasse Lorenzen, Peter M.W. Skovgaard

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


In the precision glass moulding process, the heat transfer and the resulting transient temperature distributions of the molten glass are of great importance because they significantly affect the productivity as well as the thermally induced residual stresses in the final product. Thermal modelling of the heating system in the glass moulding process considering detailed heating mechanisms therefore plays an important part in optimizing the heating system and the subsequent pressing stage in the lens manufacturing process.The current paper deals with three-dimensional transient thermal modelling of the multi-stage heating system in a wafer based glass moulding process. In order to investigate the importance of the radiation from the interior and surface of the glass, a simple finite volume code is developed to model one dimensional radiation–conduction heat transfer in the glass wafer for an extreme case with very high temperature difference considering temperature dependant thermal conductivity and heat capacity. Afterwards, by using three-dimensional FEM modelling along with a predefined experimental test, the equivalent glass–mould interface contact resistance is determined for two different pressures. Finally, the three-dimensional modelling of the multi-stage heating system in the wafer based glass moulding process is simulated with the FEM software ABAQUS for a particular industrial application for mobile phone camera lenses to obtain the temperature distribution in the glass wafer. In the numerical modelling, the interface boundary conditions for each heating stage are changed according to the determining heat transfer mechanism(s). Numerical results are compared with experimental data to show the validity of the numerical modelling. The obtained results show that the right thermal modelling is highly dependent on the proper choice of thermal boundary conditions in different stages according to the real physical phenomena behind the process.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Materials Processing Technology
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)1771-1779
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • Wafer based precision moulding
  • Glass
  • Numerical simulation
  • Heat transfer
  • Radiation


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