Thermal analysis and SNR comparison of CMUT and PZT transducers using coded excitation

Mudabbir Tufail Bhatti*, Borislav Gueorguiev Tomov, Søren Elmin Diederichsen, Matthias Bo Stuart, Erik Vilain Thomsen, Jørgen Arendt Jensen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Coded excitation (CE) has the ability to enhance image quality and penetration depth by improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Their usefulness has been extensively proven in the literature, however, there are very few publications that have discussed the practicality of using CEs, as they can increase the operating temperature of a transducer beyond the safety limits. In this paper, the potential for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) to handle CEs is investigated and compared to a geometrically similar Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) probe. It is hypothesized that CMUTs are comparatively advantageous for CE and can generate CE signals more effectively while operating within the safety limits of temperature specified by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Simple chirp signals were used for excitation and the temperature of the transducer assembly was measured under two different test conditions following the IEC standards. The still air test showed that at the pulse repetition frequency of 4 kHz and a signal duration of, the PZT probe reached the safe limit of 27 °C within 3 min of acquisition, whereas the CMUT probe showed an increase of only 4–5 °C over 30 min of scan time. The phantom experiments showed that for the maximum temperature rise allowed at the object-transducer interface by the IEC, the gain in SNR possible for the CMUT probe was 13–14 dB and the increase in penetration depth was 30 mm, whereas no gain in SNR and penetration depth was achieved for the PZT probe. The peak mechanical index and the derated spatial peak temporal averaged intensity were found to be less than half the FDA limits for both probes in all cases, proving temperature to be the first limiting factor when using CE. Therefore, the CMUT has shown to be thermally more efficient than the PZT probe and a good candidate for CE imaging.
Original languageEnglish
Article number107148
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • CMUT
  • Coded excitation
  • PZT
  • Thermal efficiency
  • Ultrasound imaging


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