Experimental advances allow for the inclusion of multiple probes to measure the transport properties of a sample surface. We develop a theory of dual-probe scanning tunneling microscopy using a Green's function formalism, and apply it to graphene. Sampling the local conduction properties at finite length scales yields real space conductance maps which show anisotropy for pristine graphene systems and quantum interference effects in the presence of isolated impurities. Spectral signatures in the Fourier transforms of real space conductance maps include characteristics that can be related to different scattering processes. We compute the conductance maps of graphene systems with different edge geometries or height fluctuations to determine the effects of nonideal graphene samples on dual-probe measurements. © 2014 American Physical Society.