The ternary Fe-C-N system: Homogeneous distributions of nitrogen and carbon

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Abstract

Porous iron foils were used for synthesizing homogeneous samples of iron carbides and (carbo)nitrides. Homogeneous distributions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon were obtained without long treatment times due to limited required diffusion distances in the porous material. By adjustments of the nitriding and carburizing potentials, tailored nitrogen and carbon contents can be achieved, which allows assessment of a phase stability diagram for the Fe-N-C system, for which available experimental data is limited. Thermal decomposition sequences were established for the various iron carbides and (carbo)nitrides using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Hägg carbide (χ) and ε-carbonitride, Fe2(N,C)1-z, with high carbon content decompose to cementite (θ) above 850 K, while ferrite (α) forms above 950 K and austenite (γ) above 1025 K. For high nitrogen contents ζ- Fe2(N,C) is transformed to ε from 680 to 770 K, which decomposes to γ′-Fe4(N,C)1+x between 795 and 900 K as nitrogen is released as N2. Ferrite forms above 850 K while austenite may be briefly formed around 900 K.The two iron carbides, cementite and Hägg carbide, exhibit different coefficients of thermal expansion. Below approximately 480 K, cementite is ferromagnetic and a volumetric thermal expansion coefficient of αV = 1.5 × 10−5 K−1 is obtained. The average value in the paramagnetic state is αV = 4.3 (3) × 10−5 K−1. For Hägg carbide the average value is αV = 3.8 (5) × 10−5 K−1 and only a minor change in unit cell volume is observed at the magnetic transition temperature.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Alloys and Compounds
Volume690
Pages (from-to)431-437
ISSN0925-8388
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Iron carbide
  • Iron nitride
  • Nitrocarburizing
  • Phase equilibria

Cite this

@article{b4b3bd62f2a54b979eb46a006ddf8b3c,
title = "The ternary Fe-C-N system: Homogeneous distributions of nitrogen and carbon",
abstract = "Porous iron foils were used for synthesizing homogeneous samples of iron carbides and (carbo)nitrides. Homogeneous distributions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon were obtained without long treatment times due to limited required diffusion distances in the porous material. By adjustments of the nitriding and carburizing potentials, tailored nitrogen and carbon contents can be achieved, which allows assessment of a phase stability diagram for the Fe-N-C system, for which available experimental data is limited. Thermal decomposition sequences were established for the various iron carbides and (carbo)nitrides using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. H{\"a}gg carbide (χ) and ε-carbonitride, Fe2(N,C)1-z, with high carbon content decompose to cementite (θ) above 850 K, while ferrite (α) forms above 950 K and austenite (γ) above 1025 K. For high nitrogen contents ζ- Fe2(N,C) is transformed to ε from 680 to 770 K, which decomposes to γ′-Fe4(N,C)1+x between 795 and 900 K as nitrogen is released as N2. Ferrite forms above 850 K while austenite may be briefly formed around 900 K.The two iron carbides, cementite and H{\"a}gg carbide, exhibit different coefficients of thermal expansion. Below approximately 480 K, cementite is ferromagnetic and a volumetric thermal expansion coefficient of αV = 1.5 × 10−5 K−1 is obtained. The average value in the paramagnetic state is αV = 4.3 (3) × 10−5 K−1. For H{\"a}gg carbide the average value is αV = 3.8 (5) × 10−5 K−1 and only a minor change in unit cell volume is observed at the magnetic transition temperature.",
keywords = "Iron carbide, Iron nitride, Nitrocarburizing, Phase equilibria",
author = "Bastian Brink and Kenny St{\aa}hl and Christiansen, {Thomas Lundin} and Somers, {Marcel A. J.}",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.08.130",
language = "English",
volume = "690",
pages = "431--437",
journal = "Journal of Alloys and Compounds",
issn = "0925-8388",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

The ternary Fe-C-N system: Homogeneous distributions of nitrogen and carbon. / Brink, Bastian; Ståhl, Kenny; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 690, 2017, p. 431-437.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The ternary Fe-C-N system: Homogeneous distributions of nitrogen and carbon

AU - Brink, Bastian

AU - Ståhl, Kenny

AU - Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

AU - Somers, Marcel A. J.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Porous iron foils were used for synthesizing homogeneous samples of iron carbides and (carbo)nitrides. Homogeneous distributions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon were obtained without long treatment times due to limited required diffusion distances in the porous material. By adjustments of the nitriding and carburizing potentials, tailored nitrogen and carbon contents can be achieved, which allows assessment of a phase stability diagram for the Fe-N-C system, for which available experimental data is limited. Thermal decomposition sequences were established for the various iron carbides and (carbo)nitrides using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Hägg carbide (χ) and ε-carbonitride, Fe2(N,C)1-z, with high carbon content decompose to cementite (θ) above 850 K, while ferrite (α) forms above 950 K and austenite (γ) above 1025 K. For high nitrogen contents ζ- Fe2(N,C) is transformed to ε from 680 to 770 K, which decomposes to γ′-Fe4(N,C)1+x between 795 and 900 K as nitrogen is released as N2. Ferrite forms above 850 K while austenite may be briefly formed around 900 K.The two iron carbides, cementite and Hägg carbide, exhibit different coefficients of thermal expansion. Below approximately 480 K, cementite is ferromagnetic and a volumetric thermal expansion coefficient of αV = 1.5 × 10−5 K−1 is obtained. The average value in the paramagnetic state is αV = 4.3 (3) × 10−5 K−1. For Hägg carbide the average value is αV = 3.8 (5) × 10−5 K−1 and only a minor change in unit cell volume is observed at the magnetic transition temperature.

AB - Porous iron foils were used for synthesizing homogeneous samples of iron carbides and (carbo)nitrides. Homogeneous distributions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon were obtained without long treatment times due to limited required diffusion distances in the porous material. By adjustments of the nitriding and carburizing potentials, tailored nitrogen and carbon contents can be achieved, which allows assessment of a phase stability diagram for the Fe-N-C system, for which available experimental data is limited. Thermal decomposition sequences were established for the various iron carbides and (carbo)nitrides using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Hägg carbide (χ) and ε-carbonitride, Fe2(N,C)1-z, with high carbon content decompose to cementite (θ) above 850 K, while ferrite (α) forms above 950 K and austenite (γ) above 1025 K. For high nitrogen contents ζ- Fe2(N,C) is transformed to ε from 680 to 770 K, which decomposes to γ′-Fe4(N,C)1+x between 795 and 900 K as nitrogen is released as N2. Ferrite forms above 850 K while austenite may be briefly formed around 900 K.The two iron carbides, cementite and Hägg carbide, exhibit different coefficients of thermal expansion. Below approximately 480 K, cementite is ferromagnetic and a volumetric thermal expansion coefficient of αV = 1.5 × 10−5 K−1 is obtained. The average value in the paramagnetic state is αV = 4.3 (3) × 10−5 K−1. For Hägg carbide the average value is αV = 3.8 (5) × 10−5 K−1 and only a minor change in unit cell volume is observed at the magnetic transition temperature.

KW - Iron carbide

KW - Iron nitride

KW - Nitrocarburizing

KW - Phase equilibria

U2 - 10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.08.130

DO - 10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.08.130

M3 - Journal article

VL - 690

SP - 431

EP - 437

JO - Journal of Alloys and Compounds

JF - Journal of Alloys and Compounds

SN - 0925-8388

ER -