Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. In this paper we propose a planning approach that seeks to obtain a favourable trade-off between the two contrasting objectives, passenger service and operating cost, by modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired by the express-bus network in the Greater Copenhagen area. The results are encouraging and indicate a potential decrease of passenger transfer waiting times in the network of up to 20%, with the vehicle scheduling costs remaining mostly unaffected.
- vehicle scheduling
- large neighborhood search heuristics